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SOLAR ENERGY

Bondocoy, Borromeo, Mallorca, Raguindin

SOLAR ENERGY
Every hour the sun beams onto Earth more than
enough energy to satisfy global energy needs for an
entire year. - National Geographic
Energy provided by the sun
As a resource, solar energy has many useful functions
--predominantly the generation of heat and light, but it
can also fly our planes, drive our cars and desalinate
our water.

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
photo meaning "light" and voltaic meaning electricity
convert sunlight directly into electricity
made of special materials called semiconductors such
as silicon
Some materials exhibit a property known
as the photoelectric effect

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
French physicist, Edmund Bequerel, in 1839
In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light
and the photoelectric effect on which photovoltaic
technology is based.
Accidental discovery of the silicon solar cell in 1940,
when, at Bell Telephone Labs, Russell Ohl observed the
photovoltaic effect in a half-purified bar of silicon.

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

WORLD STATISTICS

WORLD STATISTICS

WORLD STATISTICS

WORLD STATISTICS

STATISTICS (PHILIPPINES)

STATISTICS (PHILIPPINES)

STATISTICS (PHILIPPINES)
EQUATOR ENERGY CORPORATION- specialize
in renewable energy in solar and wind
systems.
Philippines is the richest in the world to harvest
free electricity from the sun (5 kWh /m2 day)
however due to absence of solar machineries,
our country is now producing the smallest , the
most expensive and dirtiest electricity in the
world 72 % made from imported fossil based
fuel (coal, petroleum and natural gas)
With our 72.9Billion KWH 2012 production
capacity 71.53% is from imported fuel such as
coal 54.19% ,Natural Gas 37.66% and
Petroleum 8.16% .The 28.47% is renewable
energy such as Geothermal 49.3%,Hydro
49.38% and a combined solar, wind and
biomass 1.25%

With our Philippine average irradiance (energy from


sun) equivalent to 5 kWh/m2/day compared to Japan
3.75 kWh/m2/day , South Korea 3.94 kWh /m2/day
and Germany 2 .71 kWh/m2/day.
With our Philippine net(60%) land and roof surface
areas , complimented by our highest fuel grade
available from the sun , we can easily install 27,000
GW of solar capacity and can produce 36.4 Million
GWH of electricity per year using free fuel from the
sun. This constant yearly production can prevent 60.4
Trillion kg. Of CO2 emission into atmosphere

Electricity is a basic service. It is our life; it must be


controlled by the government.
For a total 72.9B KWH production last year, Filipinos has
paid Php 729 Billion for its electricity. If this energy
production is going to be paid in US and Japan and
Germany and South Korea, the price is only Php 255
Billion Philippine Currency.

The government must be decisive and committed to


diversify to renewable energy like solar and wind. This is
the only solution to our problem of poverty. It should lead
the way in infusing up money to finance solar and wind
project, to expand our capacity. It should limit giving
ownership to private individual whose ill motive is big
profit, thru power purchase agreement. It should upgrade
and renewed its financing scheme given to end users for
the roof top installation for their own use. Electricity
supply in the Philippines is scarce and one of the
expensive in the world.

ISSUES
According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy
2007, solar, wind and geothermal combined only
account for around 1 percent of the world's
electricity generation, with the International Energy
Agency (IEA) putting solar power's contribution to the
global energy supply at just 0.039 percent. (US- less
than 0.01% of electricity needs)

ISSUES
1. Photovoltaic (PV) cells (i.e., solar panels)
can only work efficiently when the sun is
shining.
2. Space
3. There are those even suggesting that
solar energy could be more damaging to
the environment than the end benefits it
would provide.
4. Building massive solar plants would also
require large amounts of resources such
as silicon andplastic.

ISSUES
5. Costs remain so high
6. Businesses only invest in products that make economic
sense
"Exxon was a big investor in solar in the 1970s. We got
out of it because we couldn't make any money out of it.

How can we store solar energy?


Molten Salt Technology

How can we store solar energy?


Dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell, or DSPEC

Harvesting Methods
Active Solar Energy
use electrical or mechanical devices to actively convert solar
energy into another form of energy, most often heat or
electricity

Harvesting Methods
Passive Solar Energy
use natural, non-mechanical forces- including sunshine,
shading, and breeze-to help heat and cool homes with little or
no use of electrical controls

Harvesting Technologies (Active)


Photovoltaics
most familiar way to harness solar energy
involve solar panels

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Photovoltaics
first widely used on spacecraft
used by International Space Station (ISS)
has two solar array wings (SAWs), each using about 33,000
solar cells
By 2012 available efficiencies exceed 20% and the maximum
efficiency of research photovoltaics is over 40%.

Harvesting Technologies (Active)


Traditional Solar Cells
made from Silicon
usually flat-plate

Second Generation Solar Cells


thin film solar cells
made from amorphous Silicon or non- Silicon materials
(Cadmium telluride)

Harvesting Technologies (Active)


Third Generation Solar Cells
made from a variety of new materials besides silicon,
including solar inks using conventional printing press
technologies, solar dyes, and conductive plastics

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Photovoltaics
can be fixed to the roofs or exterior walls of buildings
can be placed along roads
Solar cells are small enough to power even smaller devices

calculators
parking meters
trash compactors
water pumps

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Photovoltaic power stations
worlds largest photovoltaic plants
250 MWAgua Caliente Solar Project in the United States
221 MW Charanka Solar ParkinIndia

15 MW Tracking PV Array at Nellis Air Force Base,


Nevada
Source: Photo fromhttp://www.sunpowercorp.com/For-

Residential-scale PV System

Commercial-scale PV Systems

School Zone Warning Light. Stand-Alone Solar

Source: Photos courtesy of

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Concentrated Solar Energy
or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
uses lenses and mirrors to concentrate sunlight from a large
area into a much smaller area
solar furnaces
power tower system
linear concentrator (parabolic troughs, Fresnel reflectors)
dish/engine system (Stirling engine)

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Concentrated Solar Energy
largest facility in the world is a series of plants in Californias
Mojave Desert
Solar Energy Generating System (SEGS) generates more than 650
gigawatt-hours of electricity every year

Other large CSP plants include


150 MWSolnova Solar Power Stationand the 100 MWAndasol solar
power station, both in Spain.

Harvesting Technologies
(Active)
Concentrated Solar Energy
can generate heat forsolar cookers
solar cookers are used in areas as diverse as

Chad
Israel
India
Peru

Part of the 354 MWSEGSsolar complex in northernSan Bernardino


County, California.

Source: Photo from

The Mojave Solar Project near Harper Lake in


California

Source: Photo from

Dish concentrator (Stirling dish design)

Source: Photo from http://www.stirlingenergy.com/news-media/images-video.asp

Solar Cooker
Photograph by National

Harvesting Technologies
(Passive)
Solar Architecture
Homes and other buildings use passive solar energy to
distribute heat efficiently and inexpensively.
cool roofs
radiant barriers
green roofs

Harvesting Technologies
(Passive)
Solar Architecture
Green roofs have been a tradition in Scandinavia for centuries,
and have recently become popular in Australia,
WesternEurope, Canada, and the United States.

Cool Roofs in Los Angeles

Radiant Barriers

Green Roofs

Source: Photo from

Solar Energy Storage


Thermal mass systems use paraffin wax or various
forms of salt to store the energy in the form of heat.
Photovoltaic systems can send excess electricity to the
localpower grid, or store the energy in rechargeable
batteries.

Issues
Solar technology equipment is expensive.
Solar energy equipment is also heavy.
Both active and passive solar technology depend on
factors that are out of our control, such as climate and
cloud cover.
Sunlight must be abundant and consistent for solar
energy to be an efficient choice.

Conversion Systems

Solar Thermal Conversion Systems


High Temperature Solar Heat Engine
Southern California Edison Company had a 10MW
facility in Barstow,in the Mojave Desert.
The collecting area was roughly elliptical in shape and
covered some 300,000 square meter.
The collector consisted of 1818 sun-tracking at
mirrors forming a gigantic heliostat capable of
focusing the sun's energy on a boiler.
The boiler was a cylinder 7 m in diameter and 14 m in
height. It wasoperated at 788 K (516 C) and 10.7 MPa
(105 atmospheres).
A thermal storage system was incorporated having a
100 GJ (electric)capacity permitting the plant to
deliver some 7 MW for 4 hours during nighttime.

Solar Chimney
A circular tent with 121 m radius made mostly of plastic
material (and, partially, of glass), was built in Manzanares,
Spain.
The height of the tent is 2 m at the circumference and 8 m at
the center where a 194-m tall chimney has been erected.
The air under the tent is heated by the greenhouse effect and
rises through the 10-m diameter chimney driving a 50 kW
turbine.
The tallest existing tower is the 553-m Canada's National Tower
in Toronto.
Since the efficiency of the system depends on the height of the
chimney,the design requires a 1000-m high structure. Such a
tall structure willcertainly be a challenge to civil engineers
because would be subject to enormous wind stresses.
At a peak insolation of 1000W/m2, the efficiency would be
about 0.5%.

Solar Ponds
Solar ponds are used to capture radiation and store the
energy at temperatures of nearly 100 degrees Celsius
(C).
Constructed ponds can be made into solar ponds
bycreating a layered salt concentration gradient.
The layers prevent natural convection,trapping the heat
collected from solar radiation in the bottom layer of
brine.
Thehot brine from the bottom of the pond is piped out to
use for heat, for generatingelectricity.
A 100 ha (1 km2) solar pond can produce electricity at a
rate of approximately $0.30 per kWh.
For successful operation of a solar pond, the salt
concentration gradient and the water level must be
maintained.
The efficiency of solar ponds in converting solar
radiation into heat is estimated to be approximately 1:4.

Parabolic Troughs
shaped like the bottom half of a large drainpipe,

reflects sunlight to a central receiver tube that runs


above it.
Pressurized water and other fluids are heated in the
pipe and used to generate steam that drives turbo
generators for electricity production or provides heat
energy.
They can achieve high turbine inlet temperature.
Solar thermal receivers are estimated to produce
electricity at approximately $0.07$0.09 per kWh.
The energy input:output ratio is calculated to be 1:5

Passive Solar Systems

Direct gain glazing systems


Sunspace
Indirect gain systems
Trombe Wall
Water Wall

Photovoltaic Systems
Photovoltaic generation of power is caused by electromagnetic
radiation separating positive and negative charge carriers in
absorbing material.
Production of electricity from photovoltaic cells currently costs
about $0.25 per kWh (DOE 2000).
Using mass-produced photovoltaic cells with about 18%efficiency,
1 billion kWh per year of electricity could be produced on
approximately 2,800 ha of land, and this is sufficient electrical
energy to supply 100,000 people.

Solar energy conversion process flow

Equations

Solar Collector

Feed-In-Tarif
How the scheme works
Youll get a set amount for each unit (kilowatt hour or kWh) of
electricity you generate. The rates vary depending on:
the size of your system
what technology you install
when your technology was installed
who put the technology in place - you need to use a certified installer.

Export Tarif
As well as the generation tariff, you can also sell any extra
units you dont use back to your electricity supplier. This is
called an export tariff.

Possible Improvements
Pokeberries
Thin-film Technology
Cow Brain Protein
Highly-efficient solar concentrator design
Silicon ink-based solar cells
Solar fuels
Giant gravel batteries
Concentrated solar power plants
The largest solar-power tower in the world
Eco-etiquette

References
http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/enc
yclopedia/solar-energy/?ar_a=1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy#Electricity_pro
duction
http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/publications/renewener
gy/solarenergy.php
http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_solar.html