You are on page 1of 26

A SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON :-

FOUR WHEEL STEERING


SYSTEM

PROJECT GUIDE :MR. VISHWAS MEHRA


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL

SUBMITTED BY :RAVINDRA SINGH RATHORE


B.TECH. (3 RD YEAR) ME
S.L.S.E.T. KICHHA

TOPICS COVERED:Introduction

Why Four-wheel Steering (4WS) System?


Types
Turning circles
Vehicle dynamics and steering
Power steering
Actual 4ws system
Fail-safe measures
Advantages
Applications
History
conclusion

INTRODUCTION:What is 4WS?
How does it work?

Four wheel steering system is the

arrangement of
component ,
linkage etc. which allow a vehicle to follow
the desired course , in the sense of operating
four wheel by a steering wheel.
WORK-

The function of a steering system is


to convert the rotary movement
of a steering wheel into angular
turn of front wheels .it also absorbs
the large part of road shocks.

Why Four-wheel
Steering (4WS) System?

Why we use it :Superior cornering stability.


Improved steering responsiveness and

precision.
High speed straight line stability.
Notable improvement in lane changing
maneuvering.
Small turning radius and tight space
maneuverability at low speed.
Relative wheel angels and their control.

Types Mechanical
Hydraulic
Electro-Hydraulic

Mechanical 4WS System


1. In the mechanical 4ws steering
system Two steering gears are used .
One for Front wheel & other for the rear
wheel. A steel shaft connects the two
gear box And terminates the eccentric
shaft that is fitted with the offset pin.
2. The planetary gear meshes with the
matching teeth of an internal gear that
is secured in a fixed position to the
gear box housing.
Inside a rear-steering gear box is a simple
planetary gear setup

Hydraulic 4WS System


The hydraulically operated four-wheel-steering
system is simple in design,both in components
and operation. The rear wheels turn only in the
same direction as the front wheels. They also
turn no more than 11/2bdegrees.

The system only activates at speeds above


30 mph (50 km/h) and does not operate
when the vehicle moves in reverse.

Electro-hydraulic 4WS
System
In thisdesign, aspeed sensor
andsteering
wheel anglesensor feed information to
the
electronic control unit (ECU).this
is the
easier and suitable handling steering
system for the driver.
By processing the information received,
the ECU commands the hydraulic
system
steer the rear wheels.

At low road speed, the rear wheels of this


system are not considered a dynamic
factor in the steering process.

TURNING CIRCLES :The turning circles of a car is the diameter of

the circle described by the outside wheels


when turning on full lock. There is no hard and
fast formula to calculate the turning circle but
you an get close by using this.

Turning circle radius =

(track/2) +
(wheelbase / sin (average
steer angle ))

VEHICLE DYNAMIS AND STEERING


UNDERSTEER :-

Under steer is so called because when the


slip angle of front wheels is greater than slip
angle of rear wheels.
OVERSTEER :-

Over steer is defined when the slip angle of


front wheels lesser than the slip angle of rear
wheels.
NEUTRAL STEER OR COUNTER STEERING :-

Counter steering can defined as when the

POWER STEERING :-

Power steering helps the driver of a vehicle to

steer by directing some of the its power to asist


in swiveling the steered road wheels about their
steering axes.

A hydraulic power steering uses hydraulic

pressure supplied by an engine driven pump to


assist the motion of turning the steering wheel.

Actual 4WS :Rack and pinion front

steering, hydraulically
controlled
Rear-steering shaft
Vehicle speed sensors
Steering-phase control
unit
Centering lock spring
Solenoid valve

Fail-safe measures
Hydraulic failure

Electrical failure

Positioning of the wheels

Advantages of 4ws :Speed can be varied

Slow

Medium

Improved maneuverability

Fast

Better handling in

tight corners

Better parking

Stability is increased
4WS

2WS

Application :1):-

2) :-

3) :-

Conclusion :An innovative feature of this steering linkage

design and its ability to drive all four wheels


using a single steering actuator.
Its successful implementation will allow for

the development of a four wheel , steered


power base with maximum maneuverability ,
uncompromised static stability , front and rear
wheel tracing , and optimum obstacle
climbing capability.

S
E
I
R
E
U
Q
?
.

Thank

you