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How Employees Learn Culture


◦ Narratives of significant events or actions of
people that convey the spirit of the organization


◦ Repetitive sequences of activities that express
and reinforce the values of the organization

Material Symbols

◦ Physical assets distinguishing the organization


◦ Acronyms and jargon of terms, phrases, and word
meanings specific to an organization

5 Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture 23 .Exhibit 2.

Creating an ethical culture .

increasingly. human or natural rights. concern for health and safety and. . obedience to the law of land. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women. also for the natural environment.DEFINITION OF ETHICS  The basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct.

CREATING AN ETHICAL CULTURE: SUGGESTIONS FOR MANAGERS Be a visible role model.  Communicate ethical expectations.  .  Visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones.  Provide protective mechanisms so employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear.  Provide ethics training.

it send a positive message for all employees. When senior management is observed (by subordinates) to take the ethical high road. .Be a role model and be visible   Your employees look to the behavior of top management as a model of what’s acceptable behavior in the workplace.

that a code of ethics is worthless if top management fails to model ethical behaviors. . Remember.Communicate ethical expectations  Ethical ambiguities can be reduced by creating and disseminating an organizational code of ethics. however. It should state the organization’s primary values and the ethical rules that employees are expected to follow.

Offer ethics training  Set up seminars. workshops. Use these training sessions to reinforce the organization’s standards of conduct. to clarify what practices are and are not permissible. . and to address possible ethical dilemmas. and similar ethical training programs.

Visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones Performance appraisals of managers should include a point-by-point evaluation of how his or her decisions measure up against the organization’s code of ethics.  . unethical acts should be punished. Appraisals must include the means taken to achieve goals as well as the ends themselves. People who act ethically should be visibly rewarded for their behavior.  Just as importantly.

This might include creation of ethical counselors. or ethical officers. ombudsmen. .Provide protective mechanisms  The organization needs to provide formal mechanisms so that employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear of reprimand.

Creating an innovative culture .

When this organizational strength is magnified. Create a Culture of Innovation  While many organizations focus on addressing problems. One of the ways they do this is by creating a culture where innovation thrives. it can become a source of competitive advantage . the most successful focus on raising the bar.Don't JUST Innovate.

Focus on outcomes Clearly. these leaders free up a lot of energy for the creative process of making it happen. By focusing on outcomes and results.  .what are the things that leaders must do to foster innovation? Here are five strategies that make a profound difference: 1. one of the ways that innovation is cultivated is by having leaders who make sure everyone involved knows the outcome and strategic goals of any objective.

Challenge the status quo In a number of cases employees possess a willingness to take on difficult issues. Doing so cultivates tremendous respect from their colleagues. but complete and shared confidence in one another. They separate issues from people and are able to disagree. Develop reciprocal trust Not the garden varieties of trust.2. This could be said as “healthy creative tension” when describing the atmosphere of meetings led by the innovator. without being disagreeable. 3. even when it means expressing disagreement with higher levels in the organization. .

Be inspiring “For innovation to exist you have to feel inspired!” Similarly.” If you create an environment of innovation.4. when people feel inspired by a leader they are more inclined to give more effort and go the extra mile on a project. That extra effort and commitment is often what produces innovation. A culture where innovation thrives in every corner is exponentially more valuable than a culture which anoints one or even a few people as “the innovative ones. Put your efforts into fostering and promoting innovation within your organization. who knows where your next great idea will come from? .

Creating a customer responsive culture .

procedures and regulations  Using widespread empowerment of employees  Having good listening skills in relating to customers’ messages  .Creating a CustomerResponsive Culture Hiring the right type of employees (ones with a strong interest in serving customers  Having a few rigid rules.

 . caring employees willing to take initiative.Providing role clarity to employees to reduce ambiguity and conflict and increase job satisfaction  Having conscientious.

and listening skills. concern about others. and displaying emotions. showing patience. patience.Suggestions for Managers: for creating a more Customer-Responsive Culture Hire service-contact people with the personality and attitudes consistent with customer service— friendliness. attentiveness.  . enthusiasm.  . active listening.  Socialize new service-contact people to the organization’s goals and values.  Train customer service people continuously by focusing on improving product knowledge.

Design customer-service jobs so that employees have as much control as necessary to satisfy customers.  Empower service-contact employees with the discretion to make day-to-day decisions on job-related activities.  As the leader. convey a customer-focused vision and demonstrate through decisions and actions the commitment to customers  .

Spirituality and Organisational Culture .

seek to find meaning and purpose in their work.Spirituality and organisational culture  Workplace spirituality ◦ Workplace spirituality recognizes that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community. and desire to connect with other human beings and be part of a community. ◦ Organizations that promote a spiritual cultural recognize that people have both a mind and a spirit. .

The myth of rationality assumed that the well-run organization eliminated feelings. concern about an employee’s inner life had no role in the perfectly rational model.Historical models of management and organizational behavior had no room for spirituality. Similarly. But we’ve now come to realize that the study of emotions improve our understanding of organizational behavior.  An awareness of spirituality can help you to better understand employee behavior in the twenty first century.  .

They’re among a growing number of organizations that have embraced workplace spirituality. have in common?  A.Q: What do Southwest Airlines and HewlettPackard. .

com/aug/ ml . http://www.qualitydigest.

motivation. and work/life balance. So why has the search for meaning and purposefulness in work surfaced now? There are a number of reasons. Employees have always had an inner life. ethics. The concept of workplace spirituality draws on our previous discussions of topics such as values.  Spiritual organizations are concerned with helping people develop and reach their full potential. . leadership. Similarly organizations that are concerned with spirituality are more likely to directly address problems created by work/life conflicts.

seeks to provide electricity around the globe and to fundamentally change people’s lives and their economic well-being. . the world’s largest independent power producer. ◦ Tom’s of Maine strives to sell personal care household products that are made from natural ingredients and are environmentally friendly.What differentiates spiritual organizations from their non-spiritual counterparts?  Spiritual organizations build their cultures around a meaningful purpose. ◦ Southwest Airlines. People want to be inspired by a purpose that they believe is important and worthwhile. they’re not the primary values of the organization. is strongly committed to providing the lowest airfares. ◦ AES. for instance. and a pleasant experience for customer. on-time services. Maximizing profits may excite investors but it rarely stirs employees’ emotions or imaginations. While profits may be important.