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Training is the process of altering

employee behavior and attitudes in a


way that increase the probability of
goal attainment.

Features of Training
Training objectives are tied to

organizations business objectives.

Training is tailored to trainee needs and

learning styles.

Trainees are provided regular, ongoing

feedback concerning their progress while


in the training programme.

WHY T & D

No one is a perfect fit at the time of hiring and

some training & development must take place.


Planned development programs will return values

to the organization in terms of :


increased productivity
reduced costs
Morale
Flexibility to adapt to changing requirements
Reduces wastage and spoilage
Improves Quality

Orientation
Orientation is the formal introduction of the

new employees to the organization and to


the job.
Orientation answers what questions new

employees have on the first day of the work.


Orientation is a specific type of training

which is given to the new employee

Why Orientation Is Important


Orientation explains basics often provided in an

employee handbook
Rules and policies are often discussed
Makes new employee feel at ease
Describes the organization the big picture
Defines expected work behavior
Socializes new employee in companys ways

Training Process
Determine the mission of
the org
Job description

Training needs assessment

Decide most imp


objective/priorities

Evaluate the curriculum

Evaluate the Result of


Training

1)Assess Training Needs:


The first step in developing a training program is

to identify and assess needs. Employee training


needs may already be established in the
organizations strategic, human resources or
individual development plans. If youre building
the training program from scratch (without
predetermined objectives) youll need to conduct
training needs assessments.

2)Set Organizational
Training
Objectives:

The training needs assessments (organizational,


task & individual) will identify any gaps in your
current training initiatives and employee skill
sets.These gaps should be analyzed and
prioritized and turned into the organizations
training objectives. The ultimate goal is to bridge
the gap between current and desired performance
through the development of a training program. At
the employee level, the training should match the
areas of improvement discovered through
360 degree evaluations.

3)Create Training Action


Plan:

The next step is to create a comprehensive


action plan that includes learning theories,
instructional design,content, materials and any
other training elements. Resources and training
delivery methods should also be detailed. While
developing the program, the level of training and
participants learning styles need to also be
considered.Many companies pilot their initiatives
and gather feedback to make adjustments before
launching the program company-wide.

4)Implement Training
Initiatives:

The implementation phase is where the training


program comes to life. Organizations need to
decide whether training will be delivered in-house
or externally coordinated. Program
implementation includes the scheduling of
training activities and organization of any related
resources (facilities, equipment, etc.). The training
program is then officially launched, promoted and
conducted. During training, participant progress
should be monitored to ensure that the program is
effective.

5)Evaluate & Revise


Training:

As mentioned in the last segment, the training


program should be continually monitored. At the
end, the entire program should be evaluated to
determine if it was successful and met training
objectives. Feedback should be obtained from all
stakeholders to determine program and instructor
effectiveness and also knowledge or skill
acquisition. Analyzing this feedback will allow the
organization to identify any weaknesses in the
program. At this point, the training program or
action plan can be revised if objectives or
expectations are not being met.

Responsible for Training


Top Mgmt Frames the Training

policy

HR Dept plans, establishes and

evaluates

Supervisors implement and apply

development procedure

Employees takes the training

Two approaches of T and D


Traditional approach
Modern approach

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH


OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT
Traditional Approach Most of the

organizations before never used to believe


in training. They were holding the traditional
view that managers are born and not made.
There were also some views that training is
a very costly affair and not worth.

Modern approachTraining is now considered as more of

retention tool than a cost. The training


system in Indian Industry has been
changed to create a smarter workforce and
yield the best results.

Methods of Training
COGNITIVE METHODS
BEHAVIORAL METHODS

CONTD
COGNITIVE METHODS

Cognitive methods are more of giving


theoretical training to the trainees.

Methods that come under Cognitive


approach
LECTURES
DEMONSTRATIONS
DISCUSSIONS
COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)

LECTURES
This method is used to create understanding of a

topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through


lecture.

A lecture can be in printed or oral form.

Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of

listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a


topic.

Demonstration
This method is a visual display of how

something works or how to do something.


Example, trainer shows the trainees how to
perform or how to do the tasks of the job.

Discussion method
This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners

with context that is supported, elaborated, explains,


or expanded on through interactions both among the
trainees and between the trainer and the trainees.

Discussion method is a two-way flow of


communication
knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to
trainees
Then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to

trainer.

Cbt training
Providing training to employees through

Intranet or Internet.

CBT does not require face-to-face

interaction with a human trainer.

BENEFITS OF CBT

BEHAVIORAL METHODS
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical

training to the trainees


The various methods in this allows the trainee to

behavior in a real fashion


These methods are best used for skill

development.

Methods that come under Behavioural


approach

GAMES AND SIMULTATIONS


Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in

which trainees compete with each other according


to the defined set of rules.
Simulation is creating computer versions of reallife games.
It is about imitating or making judgment on how

events might occur in a real situation.

Business games
These are based on the set of rules,

procedures, plans.
In business games, trainees are given some

information that describes a particular


situation and are then asked to make
decisions that will best suit in the favour of
the company.

Role plays
Role play is a simulation in which each participant is

given a role to play.

Information is given to Trainees related to:


description of the role
concerns
objectives
responsibilities
emotions, etc.

Contd
Then, a general description of the situation, and

the problem that each one of them faces, is


given.example,
Situation could be strike in factory,
Managing conflict between two parties
Scheduling vacation days, etc.

In basket techniques
In this technique, trainee is given some information

about the role to be played such as, description,


responsibilities, general context about the role.

The trainee is then given the log of materials that

make up the in-basket and asked to respond to


materials within a particular time period.

After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion

with the trainer takes place.

Equipment simulators can be used in giving


training to:
Taxi Drivers
Telephone Operators
Maintenance Workers
Product Development Engineers
Airline Pilots

CASE STUDY
The trainee is given with some written material,

and the some complex situations of a real or


imaginary organization.

DEVELOPMENT
The more future oriented method and more
concerned with education of the employees.
To become a better performer by education
implies that management development
activities attempt to install sound reasoning
processes.

Two parts of development


ON THE JOB TRAINING

OFF THE JOB TRAINING

ON JOB TRAINING
The development of a managers abilities can take

place on the job. The four techniques for on-the job


development are:
COACHING
MENTORING
JOB ROTATION

JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)

COACHING
Coaching is one of the training methods,

which is considered as a corrective method


for inadequate performance.
Coaching is the best training plan
It is one-to-one interaction
It can be done on phone, meetings, through

mails, chat etc.

Mentoring
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is

developed between a senior and junior employee.


Mentoring provides guidance and clear
understanding of how the organization goes to
achieve its vision and mission to the junior
employee.

Job Rotation
This approach allows the manger to operate in

diverse roles and understand the different issues


that crop up.
It is the process of preparing employees at a

lower level to replace someone at the next higher


level.

Job Instruction
Technique(JIT)
Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with

focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills


and attitudes development.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING


There are many management development

techniques that an employee can take in off the


job. The few popular methods are:

SENSITIVITY TRAINING
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
SIMULATION EXERCISES

Sensitivity Training
Sensitivity training is about making people

understand about themselves and others


reasonably, which is done by developing in
them social sensitivity and behavioural
flexibility.

Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis provides trainees with

a realistic and useful method for Analysing


and understanding the behavior of others.
In every social interaction, there is a
motivation provided by one person and a
reaction to that motivation given by another
person. This motivation-reaction relationship
between two persons is a transaction.

Lecture A Method of
Training
Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of

listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a


topic.

Training is basically incomplete without lecture.

Training For Special Purposes


Global business training samples include:

Executive etiquette for global transactions


Cross-cultural technology transfer
International protocol and presentation
Business basics for the foreign executive

Language training

Training For Special Purposes


Diversity training
Better cross-cultural sensitivity
Results examples:
Improving technical skills
Socialization

Distance and internet based


training
Distance training
Teletraining
Videoconferencing

Internet based Training


The virtual Classroom-uses special collaboration

software to enable multiple remote learners,using


their PCs or laptops to participate in live audio and
visual discussions ,communicate via written text
and learn via content such as Power point slides.

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Needs Assessment

Objectives
1.
2.

3.
4.

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Discuss the role of organization analysis, person


analysis, and task analysis in needs assessment.
Identify different methods used in needs
assessment and identify the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
Discuss the concerns of upper-level and mid-level
managers and trainers in needs assessment.
Explain how person characteristics, input, output,
consequences, and feedback influence
performance and learning.

Objectives
5.
6.
7.
8.

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(continued)

Create conditions to ensure that employees are


receptive to training.
Discuss the steps involved in conducting a task
analysis.
Analyze the task analysis data to determine the
tasks in which people need to be trained.
Explain competency models and the process
used to develop them.

Introduction
Effective training practices involve the use of an

instructional systems design process.


The instructional systems design process begins
by conducting a needs assessment.
The example of Texas Instruments shows, before
you choose a training methods, it is important to
determine whether training is necessary.

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Needs Assessment
Refers to the process used to determine if training

is necessary.
Because needs assessment is the first step in the

instructional design process:


If it is poorly conducted, training will not
achieve the outcomes or financial benefits the
company expects.

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Reasons or Pressure
Points
Legislation

Lack of Basic Skills


Poor Performance

Outcomes

Task
Analysis

Customer Requests
Higher Performance
Standards
New Jobs

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Who Receives
Training

Organization
Analysis

New Technology
New Products

What Trainees Need to


Learn

What is the Context?

Person
Analysis

Who Needs the


Training?

In What Do
They Need
Training?

Type of Training
Frequency of Training
Training Versus Other
HR Options Such as
Selection or Job
Redesign

Needs assessment involves:


Organizational Analysis involves determining:

the appropriateness of training, given

the business strategy


resources available for training
support by managers and peers for
training
Task Analysis involves:

identifying the important tasks and

knowledge, skill, and behaviors that


need to be emphasized in training for
employees to complete their tasks

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Needs assessment involves:


(continued)
Person Analysis involves:

determining whether performance

deficiencies result from a lack of


knowledge, skill, or ability (a
training issue) or from a
motivational or work design problem
identifying who needs training
determining employees readiness
for training
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Key Concerns of Upper- and Midlevel Managers and


Trainers in Needs Assessment
Upper-Level Managers

Midlevel Managers

Trainers

Organizational
analysis

Is training important to
achieve our business
objectives?
How does training
support our business
strategy?

Do I want to spend
money on training?
How much?

Do I have the budget to


buy training services?
Will managers support
training?

Person
analysis

What functions or
business units need
training?

Who should be trained?


Managers?
Professionals?
Core employees?

How will I identify which


employees need
training?

Task analysis

Does the company have


the people with the
knowledge, skills, and
ability needed to compete
in the marketplace?

For what jobs can


training make the biggest
difference in product
quality or customer
service?

What tasks should be


trained?
What knowledge, skills,
ability, or other
characteristics are
necessary?

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Needs Assessment Techniques
Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Observation

Generates data relevant to


work environment.
Minimizes interruption of
work.

Needs skilled observer.


Employees behavior may be
affected by being observed.

Questionnaires

Inexpensive
Can collect data from a
large number of persons.
Data easily summarized.

Requires time.
Possible low return rates,
inappropriate responses.
Lacks detail.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of


Needs Assessment Techniques (continued)
Technique

Advantages

Disadvantages

Read technical
manuals and
records

Good source of
information on procedure.
Objective.
Good source of task
information for new jobs
and jobs in the process of
being created.

You may not be able to


understand technical
language.
Materials may be obsolete.

Interview subject
matter experts

Good at uncovering details Time consuming.


of training needs.
Difficult to analyze.
Good at uncovering
Needs skilled interviewer.
causes and solutions of
problems.

Person Analysis
Person Characteristics
Input
Output
Consequences
Feedback
Organizational Analysis
Strategic Direction
Support of Managers
& Peers for Training

Do We Want To Devote Time


and Money For Training?

Training Resources
Task Analysis or Develop
a Competency Model
Work Activity (Task)
KSAs
Working Conditions
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MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT

It is an attempt to improve managerial

performance by imparting
knowledge,changing attitude or increasing
knowledge

Management Development
-Process
Assess the company strategic needs
Appraise managers current performance\
Develop the managers

Managerial On-the Job


Training

Job Rotation
Coaching
Action Learning

Off the-job Management


Training

The case study method


Management games
Outside seminar
University related Programme.
Role Playing
Behaviour modeling
Executive coaches-consultant to develop top mgt

Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal (PA) refers to all

those procedures that are used to


evaluate the
personality
performance
potential of its group members

Objectives of Performance
Appraisal
Provide a basisPromotion
Transfer
Termination:
Career planning

Objectives of Performance
Appraisal
Remove discontent: Identifying and removing
factors responsible for workers discontent
would motivate them for better work
performance

Objectives of Performance
Appraisal
Develop inter-personal relationships relations
between superior subordinate.

Establishing job standards


Designing an appraisal programme
Appraise performance
Performance interview
Use appraisal data
For appropriate purpose

Taking corrective
standards

Setting
performance
standards

Discussing
results

Communicating
standards

Measuring
standards
Comparing
standards

Benefits of Performance Appraisal


For the appraisee-

Better understanding of his role in the

organizationwhat is expected and what


needs to be done to meet those expectations
Clear understanding of his strengths and

weaknesses to develop himself into a better


performer in future

For
the
appraisee

Increased motivation, job satisfaction, and

self-esteem
Opportunity to discuss work problems and

how they can be overcome


Opportunity to discuss aspirations and any

guidance, support or training needed to fulfil


those aspirations
Improved working relationships with

supervisors

Benefits of Performance Appraisal


For the Management
Identification of performers and non-

performers and their development


towards better performance
Opportunity to prepare employees for

assuming higher responsibilities

For the Management


Opportunity to improve communication

between the employees and management


Identification of training and development

needs
Generation of ideas for improvements
Better identification of potential and

formulation of career plans

Benefits of Performance Appraisal


For the Organization
Improved performance throughout the

organization
Creation of a culture of continuous

improvement and success


Conveying the message that people are

valued

Performance Appraisal - Individual


Evaluation Methods
Confidential
Essay

report

evaluation

Critical

incidents

Checklists
Graphic

rating scale

Behaviorally
Forced
MBO

anchored rating scale

choice method

Performance Appraisal - Multiple


Person Evaluation Methods

Ranking

Paired comparison

Forced distribution

Other methods

Performance tests

Field review technique