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# Heat and Temperature

What is Heat??

## Thermal Energy = the total energy of all

of the particles in a material or object.

## Throughout the ages people have invented a variety of

devices to help create and capture heat for use.

## What are some ways that we use heat?

Cook food
Warm buildings
Dry clothes
What are some ways Thermal Energy has
been used throughout history?

## What heat technologies can you think of

that have been developed through-out
time? Why have they changed?

Examples.

## Devices to generate, transfer,

control or remove heat

## Can you think of any examples of devices

that generate, transfer, control or remove
heat?

## Thermometer: Mechanical or electrical device for

measuring temperature. Early thermometer was
invented by Galileo.

## Scale: A series of equally measured sections that are

marked and numbered for use in measurement.

Celsius Scale

## Celsius Scale: Most commonly used in Canada. Unit of

temperature is called a degree. Based on the boiling and
freezing points of water.

## Boiling Point: The temperature at which water boils.

100o C at sea level.

## Freezing Point: The temperature at which water

freezes. 0o C at sea level.

Another Scale

## Kelvin is another way of measuring

temperature.
Scientists use Kelvin to explain the
behaviour of gases.
Absolute Zero is measured in Kelvin
which is the coldest possible temperature
0 Kelvin = -273 C

## Each thermometer has a sensor a

material which is affected by changes in
the environment (such as temperature)
The sensor produces a signal (information
about temperature, such as an electrical
current) which affects a responder (a
pointer, light or other mechanism that uses
the signal in some way)

The Thermocouple

## Wires made up of two different

metals are twisted together.
When the wire tips are heated,
a small electric current is
generated
The amount of current
depends on the temperature.
They can measure higher
temperatures than
thermometers.
The electric current can be
used to turn switches on or off
if the temperature changes.
Used in kilns, diesel engines
and industrial furnaces

Bimetallic Strip

metals joined together
When the strip is heated
one metal expands more
than the other
Thus the strip coils more
tightly
Movement of the strip
can operate a switch that
can control furnaces
commonly used in
thermostats in homes

## Your brain has its own temperature

sensor.
It monitors your own internal temperature.
If the temperature outside changes, the
sensor signals your brain to release
to normal temperature (37C)

Continued

## Recording Thermometer: A bimetallic strip

connected to a writing device and paper
which records temperature fluctuations
over time.

## Infrared Thermogram: Records infrared

radiation, (heat sensor) as different colors
according to their temperature.

## Topic 3: Particle Model of Matter,

Temperature and Thermal Energy

## Reminder: matter is anything that takes up

space
Three most important ideas of the model:

## All substances are made of particles too small

to see
The particles are always in motion
The particles have space between them

When motion of
particles increases
so does the
temperature

When motion of
particles decreases
so does the
temperature

in a substance

## What will happen to

the glow stick when it
is placed in hot
water?
What will happen to
the glow stick when it
is placed in cold
water?

Energy

## Energy is the ability to do work in other

words to cause change
In order for something to change, there
must be a transfer of energy from one
thing to another
Ex. Charged batteries run your iPod,

Thermal Energy

## Energy is not a substance.

It cannot be weighed
It does not take up space
Energy describes a condition
Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or
destroyed. It can only be transformed from one type to another
or passed from one object to another

## Temperature = A measure of the average

energy of the particles in a material.

## Thermal Energy = The total energy of all

the particles in a material.

Contraction

## Contract: Decrease in volume

Expand: Increase in volume

contract

## Heated usually causes expansion

Cooled usually causes contraction

Changes of State

## Heat Capacity: Amount of thermal energy

that warms or cools the object by one
degree Celsius.

## Specific Heat Capacity: Amount of

thermal energy that warms or cools one
gram of a material by one degree Celsius.

Table

Solids

## When solids are heated they expand

When solids are cooled they contract

Liquids

## Cannot be compressed (meaning if I have 1

litre of coke, I cannot make it fit into a pop
can)

## When liquids are heated they expand

When liquids are cooled they contract

Gases

## Have no definite shape or size

Can be compressed

## When heated, gases expand

When cooled, gases - contract

Changes of State

Definitions:

Melt
Freeze
Evaporate
Condense
Sublimation

Continued

## Evaporative Cooling: A process in which the

faster moving particles on the surface of a liquid
evaporate and escape into the air, the slower
ones are left behind creating a lower average
kinetic energy (cooling it)

## Particles are more or less organized when they

are hot or cold????

Phase Changing

## During a change from solid to liquid or liquid to gas the

average temperature does not change even though heat
is being added, the name for the heat that is added is
latent heat.

## There are 3 main ways to transfer energy

2) Conduction
3) Convection

***See handout***

## Energy Source: An object or material that

can transfer its energy to other objects.
Radiation: The transfer of energy without
any movement of matter.

All forms of radiant energy share several
characteristics:
- They behave like waves
- They can be absorbed and reflected by
objects
- They travel across empty space at the
same high speed of 300,000 km/s

## Thermal Conduction: The process of

transferring thermal energy through direct
collisions between particles.

Examples???

Energy

Examples??

Chemical Energy

## Stored chemical energy is released in the

form of thermal energy when it is burned.

Electrical Energy

Electricity

## Example: hydro-electric dams falling water is

changed to electrical energy

Geothermal Energy

Solar Energy

## Uses materials in the

structure to absorb,
store, and release
solar energy.

Example: a wall of
windows

## Active Solar Energy

Uses mechanical
devices to distribute
stored thermal energy

Example: fans

## Solar Collectors use

stored water or air on the
roof, heats it, and then
pumps it through the
building

Wind Energy

Moving air
Is a result of solar
energy as the sun
heats the air, the
warmer air rises and
cools off. Cooler air
falls, creating a
convection current
this forms wind

Fossil Fuels

## Chemicals made from plants and animals that died and

decomposed millions of years ago and have preserved
deep underground.

Energy Converters

## For example a candle can convert chemical

energy into heat and light energy.

## Candles are energy converters (devices which

convert or change energy from one form to
another.)

Other examples????

Renewable Resources
Definition:
Renewable resources
are a natural resource
same rate they are
used up.

Non-Renewable Resource
Definition:
A resource which
is limited in
supply and
cannot be
replaced once it
is used.

## Renewable Resources in Alberta

Examples:
Trees (Forestry)
Wind (Wind Farms)
Agriculture ( One of the biggest crop
Water (Dams and water conservation)
Solar ( Solar Panels and Solariums)

Non-Renewable Resources in
Alberta
Examples:
Oil (Oil Wells)
Natural Gas (Pipelines across the
province)
Coal (Mining in Alberta)

## Positive and Negative Effects On

Our Environment
Positive (Renewable)
Plentiful
Non-polluting
Low cost to acquire
Cogeneration

Negative (nonrenewable)
Polluting
greenhouse gases,
thermal pollution
Expensive
Can be rare
Not plentiful

Greenhouse Gases
do not write down

## Even though carbon dioxide occurs naturally in

the environment (we breathe out CO2 and plants
require CO2), it, like anything is only good in
moderation. When there is too much CO 2 in the
air, heat from Earth is unable to escape into
space because it is trapped by greenhouse
gases (which have a lot of CO2 in them)
scientist believe that this leads to GLOBAL
WARMING

Global Warming
do not write down

## When there is an increase in CO2 and

greenhouse gases are trapping thermal energy
the Earths temperature increases rapidly. A
few degrees doesnt seem to affect us much, but
to the Earth, it can make a huge difference. It
can change climate zones, plant growing
abilities, dry up rivers and lakes, and even melt
polar ice caps.What are some effects on the
surrounding environments if these things
happen?

Cogeneration

## Sometimes negative effects can be turned into

more positive effects cogeneration uses
waste from thermal pollution to produce
electricity or uses the waste to heat buildings.
FACT: when fuel burns in a thermo-electric
power plant, only about 1/3 of its energy is
converted into electricity cogeneration is
efficient because it uses some of the remaining
2/3 of energy

## The Three Important Renewable

Resources to me and Why?
1.

2.

## Water: Very important to me since I need

water to survive. Water is a very good
way to generate energy so that I may
have electricity in my home.
Agriculture: It is the most important to
me since I need food to live. It provides
me with produce to eat and clothes that I
may wear.

Continued
3.

## Sun: The sun gives me energy to go to

school everyday. It provides me with light
so that I am not always walking around
in the dark. It also makes things grow.
The best part is that you can capture the
sun and turn it into energy that can be
used.

Renewable Resources

Lab Activity

## How else do energy resources affect our

environment?
In this lab we will look at how renewable
resources and our environment are affected
by pollution specifically OIL SPILLS

Fuel Resources

## Insulate homes and water lines

Reduce the amount of energy we use
Install a programmable thermostat
Carpool

Others????