Groundwater Groundwater 11
Groundwater flows slowly through the voids between grains or the cracks in solid rock. Much of our knowledge depends on field and laboratory observations. Here, for example, is an experiment to measure head loss in an aquifer.
Darcy’s Law
• Henri Darcy established empirically that the energy lost ∆h in water flowing through a permeable formation is proportional to the length of the sediment column ∆L.
• The constant of proportionality K is called the hydraulic conductivity . The Darcy Velocity V _{D} :
V _{D} = – K (∆h/∆L)
and since
Q = V _{D} A ( where A = total area)
Q = – KA (dh/dL)
Darcy’s Experiment
Darcy’s
Experiment
1. Velocities small, V ~ 0, so:
Piezometers before and after sand. Pipe is full, so flow rate is constant
2. Head difference doesn’t change with inclination of the sand filter
3. Again, Darcy related reduced flow rate to head loss and length of column through a constant of proportionality K,
V = Q/A
= K dh / dL
Darcy’s Data (One set of 10 experiments)
L
0.58 m
diam.
0.35 m
n
0.38
A
0.096211 m 2
Calc
Experiment
Duration
Q
dp
Ratio
K
K
No.
(min)
L/min
(m)
V/dp
(m/min)
cm/s
1
25
3.6 1.11
3.25
0.019552
3.26E02
2
20
7.65 2.36
3.24
0.019541
3.26E02
3
15
12
4
3 0.018085
3.01E02
4
18
14.28 4.9
2.91
0.017568
2.93E02
5
17
15.2
5.02
3.03
0.018253
3.04E02
6
17
21.8
7.63
2.86
0.017224
2.87E02
7
11
23.41
8.13
2.88
0.017359
2.89E02
8
15
24.5
8.58
2.85
0.017214
2.87E02
9
13
27.8
9.86
2.82
0.016997
2.83E02
10
10
29.4
10.89
2.7 0.016275
2.71E02
1.Darcy collected data with his apparatus, then …
Plotted it. Note the strong coefficient of determination R ^{2} .
Darcy’s allows an estimate of:
• The
The velocity
velocity or
or flow
flow rate
rate moving
moving within
within the
• The
_{T}_{h}_{e} average
_{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} time
_{t}_{i}_{m}_{e} of
_{o}_{f} travel
_{t}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{l} from
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} the
_{t}_{h}_{e} head
_{h}_{e}_{a}_{d} of
_{o}_{f} the
_{t}_{h}_{e} aquifer
_{a}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{f}_{e}_{r} toto aa
located downstream
downstream
• Very
Very important
important for
for prediction
prediction of
of contaminant
contaminant plume
Darcy & Seepage Velocity
• Darcy velocity V _{D} is a fictitious velocity since it assumes that flow occurs across the entire crosssection of the sediment sample. Flow actually takes place only through interconnected pore channels (voids), at the seepage velocity V _{S} .
A _{v} voids
A = total area
Darcy & Seepage Velocities
• From the Continuity Eqn. Q = constant
• “Pipe running full” means “Inputs = Outputs”
•
Q = A V _{D} = A _{V} V _{s}
– Where:Q = flow rate
area of seepage velocity
A = total crosssectional
materialA _{V} = area of voids V _{s} =
V _{D} = Darcy velocity
Since A > A _{V} , and Q = constant, V _{s} > V _{D}
Pinch hose, reduce area, water goes faster
Darcy & Seepage Velocity:
Porosity
_{•}

Q = A V _{D} = A _{V} V _{s} _{,} therefore
V _{S} = V _{D} ( A/A _{V} )

•

Multiplying both sides by the length of the medium

•

(L) divided by itself, L / L = 1 V _{S} = V _{D} ( AL / A _{V} L ) = V _{D} ( Vol _{T} / Vol _{V} )

we get volumes

•

Where:

Vol _{T} = total volume

Vol _{V} = void

volume

• By definition, Vol _{v} / Vol _{T} = n, the sediment porosity
So the actual velocity:
V _{S} = V _{D} / n
Turbulence and Reynolds Number
• The path a water molecule takes is called a
streamline.
In laminar flow, streamlines do
not cross, and the viscous forces due to hydrogen bonds are important. In turbulent flow acceleration and large scale motion away from a smooth path is important (this is the familiar inertial force F = ma) and streamlines cross. • We could take the ratio of inertial to viscous forces. When this number is “large,” inertial forces are more important, and flows are turbulent. • This ratio is known as the Reynolds number Re:
•
Viscosity
• Viscosity is a fluid’s resistance to flow.
• Dynamic viscosity , units Pa·s = N·s/m 2 , or kg/(m·s)is determined experimentally. If a fluid with a viscosity of one Pa·s is placed between two plates, and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one Pascal, it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the layer between the plates in one second.
• Kinematic viscosity
, is the dynamic
viscosity divided by the density. The SI unit of ν is m 2 /s.
Reynolds: Inertial/Viscous forces
Recall the ratio of Kinetic/Potential Energy (KE/PE) is the Froude Number
Fr Fr = V / sqrt( g L)
Limitations of Darcy’s Equation
1. For Reynold’s Number, Re, > 10 or where the flow
is turbulent, as in the immediate vicinity of pumped
wells.
Darcy’s
Darcy’s Law
Law works
works
2. Where water flows through extremely finegrained
for
for 1.0
1.0 << ReRe << 1010
Q = – KA (dh/dL)
materials (colloidal clay)
q = – Ky (dh/dL)
Example 1
Q =
KA (dh/dL)
The hydraulic conductivity K is a velocity, length / time
and n = Vol _{v}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{s} / Vol _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l}
• A confined aquifer has a source of recharge. • K for the aquifer is 50 m/day, and porosity n is 0.2. • The piezometric head in two wells 1000 m apart is 55 m and 50 m respectively, from a common datum. • The average thickness of the aquifer is 30 m, and the average width of the aquifer is 5 km = 5000m.
A piezometer is a smalldiameter observation well used to measure the piezometric head of groundwater in aquifers. Piezometric head is measured as a water surface elevation, expressed in units of length.
Example 1 Solution
Q =
KA (dh/dL)
• CrossSectional area= 30(5000) = 1.5 x 10 ^{5} m 2 • Hydraulic gradient dh/dL= (5550)/1000 = 5 x 10 3 • Find Rate of Flow for K = 50 m/day Q = (50 m/day) (1.5 x 10 ^{5} m 2 ) ( 5 x 10 3 ) Q = 37,500 m 3 /day • Darcy Velocity: V = Q/A • = (37,500m 3 /day) / (1.5 x 10 ^{5} m 2 ) = 0.25m/day
And
•

Seepage Velocity:

V _{s} = V _{D} /n = (0.25) / (0.2) = 1.25

m/day (about 4.1 ft/day)

•

Time to travel 4 km downstream:

T

= (4000m) / (1.25m/day) = 3200 days or 8.77 years

•

This example shows that water moves very slowly underground.

Lesson: Groundwater moves very slowly
Example 2: Confined Aquifer
•
•
Consider 1ft (i.e. unit) lengths of the river and
small channel.
Q = KA [(h _{1} – h _{2} ) / L]
K
Where:
A = (30 x 1) = 30 ft 2 = (0.25 ft/hr) (24 hr/day) = 6 ft/day
•
Therefore, Q = [6ft/day (30ft 2 ) (120 – 110ft)] / 2000ft Q = 0.9 ft 3 /day for each 1foot length