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Groundwater Groundwater 11
Groundwater Groundwater 11

Groundwater flows slowly through the voids between grains or the cracks in solid rock. Much of our knowledge depends on field and laboratory observations. Here, for example, is an experiment to measure head loss in an aquifer.

Darcy’s Law

• Henri Darcy established empirically that the energy lost ∆h in water flowing through a permeable formation is proportional to the length of the sediment column ∆L.

• The constant of proportionality K is called the hydraulic conductivity . The Darcy Velocity V D :

V D = – K (∆h/∆L)

and since

Q = V D A ( where A = total area)

Darcy’s Law • Henri Darcy established empirically that the energy lost ∆h in water flowing through

Q = – KA (dh/dL)

Darcy’s Experiment

Darcy’s

Experiment

1. Velocities small, V ~ 0, so:

Darcy’s Experiment Darcy’s Experiment 1. Velocities small, V ~ 0, so: Piezometers before and after sand.

Piezometers before and after sand. Pipe is full, so flow rate is constant

2. Head difference doesn’t change with inclination of the sand filter

3. Again, Darcy related reduced flow rate to head loss and length of column through a constant of proportionality K,

V = Q/A

= -K dh / dL

3

Darcys Data (One set of 10 experiments)

L 0.58 m diam. 0.35 m n 0.38 A 0.096211 m 2 Calc Experiment Duration Q
L
0.58 m
diam.
0.35 m
n
0.38
A
0.096211 m 2
Calc
Experiment
Duration
Q
dp
Ratio
K
K
No.
(min)
L/min
(m)
V/dp
(m/min)
cm/s
1
25
3.6 1.11
3.25
0.019552
3.26E-02
2
20
7.65 2.36
3.24
0.019541
3.26E-02
3
15
12
4
3 0.018085
3.01E-02
4
18
14.28 4.9
2.91
0.017568
2.93E-02
5
17
15.2
5.02
3.03
0.018253
3.04E-02
6
17
21.8
7.63
2.86
0.017224
2.87E-02
7
11
23.41
8.13
2.88
0.017359
2.89E-02
8
15
24.5
8.58
2.85
0.017214
2.87E-02
9
13
27.8
9.86
2.82
0.016997
2.83E-02
10
10
29.4
10.89
2.7 0.016275
2.71E-02

1.Darcy collected data with his apparatus, then …

Plotted it. Note the strong coefficient of determination R 2 .

Darcy’s allows an estimate of:

• The

The velocity

velocity or

or flow

flow rate

rate moving

moving within

within the

the aquifer

aquifer

• The

The average

average time

time of

of travel

travel from

from the

the head

head of

of the

the aquifer

aquifer toto aa

point located

point

located downstream

downstream

• Very

Very important

important for

for prediction

prediction of

of contaminant

contaminant plume

plume arrival

arrival

Confined Aquifer
Confined Aquifer

Darcy & Seepage Velocity

• Darcy velocity V D is a fictitious velocity since it assumes that flow occurs across the entire cross-section of the sediment sample. Flow actually takes place only through interconnected pore channels (voids), at the seepage velocity V S .

A v voids

Darcy & Seepage Velocity • Darcy velocity V is a fictitious velocity since it assumes that

A = total area

Darcy & Seepage Velocity • Darcy velocity V is a fictitious velocity since it assumes that

Darcy & Seepage Velocities

• From the Continuity Eqn. Q = constant

• “Pipe running full” means “Inputs = Outputs”

Q = A V D = A V V s

Darcy & Seepage Velocities • From the Continuity Eqn. Q = constant • “Pipe running full”

– Where:Q = flow rate

area of seepage velocity

A = total cross-sectional

materialA V = area of voids V s =

V D = Darcy velocity

Since A > A V , and Q = constant, V s > V D

Pinch hose, reduce area, water goes faster

Darcy & Seepage Velocity:

Porosity

Q = A V D = A V V s , therefore

V S = V D ( A/A V )

Multiplying both sides by the length of the medium

(L) divided by itself, L / L = 1 V S = V D ( AL / A V L ) = V D ( Vol T / Vol V )

we get volumes

Where:

Vol T = total volume

Vol V = void

volume

• By definition, Vol v / Vol T = n, the sediment porosity

So the actual velocity:

V S = V D / n

Darcy & Seepage Velocity: Porosity Q = A V = A V therefore V = V

Turbulence and Reynolds Number

The path a water molecule takes is called a

streamline.

In laminar flow, streamlines do

not cross, and the viscous forces due to hydrogen bonds are important. In turbulent flow acceleration and large scale motion away from a smooth path is important (this is the familiar inertial force F = ma) and streamlines cross. We could take the ratio of inertial to viscous forces. When this number is “large,” inertial forces are more important, and flows are turbulent. This ratio is known as the Reynolds number Re:

Turbulence and Reynolds Number • The path a water molecule takes is called a streamline. In

Viscosity

Viscosity is a fluid’s resistance to flow.

Dynamic viscosity , units Pa·s = N·s/m 2 , or kg/(m·s)is determined experimentally. If a fluid with a viscosity of one Pa·s is placed between two plates, and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one Pascal, it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the layer between the plates in one second.

Kinematic viscosity

, is the dynamic

viscosity divided by the density. The SI unit of ν is m 2 /s.

Reynolds: Inertial/Viscous forces

we saw last time.
we saw last time.

Recall the ratio of Kinetic/Potential Energy (KE/PE) is the Froude Number

Fr Fr = V / sqrt( g L)

Limitations of Darcy’s Equation

1. For Reynold’s Number, Re, > 10 or where the flow is turbulent, as in the
1. For Reynold’s Number, Re, > 10 or where the flow
is turbulent, as in the immediate vicinity of pumped
wells.
Darcy’s
Darcy’s Law
Law works
works
2. Where water flows through extremely fine-grained
for
for 1.0
1.0 << ReRe << 1010
Q = – KA (dh/dL)
materials (colloidal clay)
q = – Ky (dh/dL)

Example 1

Q =

KA (dh/dL)

The hydraulic conductivity K is a velocity, length / time

and n = Vol voids / Vol total

Example 1 Q = KA (dh/dL) The hydraulic conductivity K is a velocity, length / time

• A confined aquifer has a source of recharge. • K for the aquifer is 50 m/day, and porosity n is 0.2. • The piezometric head in two wells 1000 m apart is 55 m and 50 m respectively, from a common datum. • The average thickness of the aquifer is 30 m, and the average width of the aquifer is 5 km = 5000m.

A piezometer is a small-diameter observation well used to measure the piezometric head of groundwater in aquifers. Piezometric head is measured as a water surface elevation, expressed in units of length.

Q =

Example 1 Compute:

KA (dh/dL)

a) the rate of flow through the aquifer

(b) the average time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a point 4 km

downstream
downstream

Example 1 Solution

Q =

KA (dh/dL)

• Cross-Sectional area= 30(5000) = 1.5 x 10 5 m 2 • Hydraulic gradient dh/dL= (55-50)/1000 = 5 x 10 -3 • Find Rate of Flow for K = 50 m/day Q = (50 m/day) (1.5 x 10 5 m 2 ) ( 5 x 10 -3 ) Q = 37,500 m 3 /day • Darcy Velocity: V = Q/A • = (37,500m 3 /day) / (1.5 x 10 5 m 2 ) = 0.25m/day

And

And • Seepage Velocity: V = V /n = (0.25) / (0.2) = 1.25 m/day (about

Seepage Velocity:

V s = V D /n = (0.25) / (0.2) = 1.25

m/day (about 4.1 ft/day)

Time to travel 4 km downstream:

T

= (4000m) / (1.25m/day) = 3200 days or 8.77 years

This example shows that water moves very slowly underground.

Lesson: Groundwater moves very slowly

Example 2

A channel runs almost parallel to a river, and they are 2000 ft apart.

The water level in the river is at an elevation of 120 ft . The channel is at an elevation of 110ft.

A pervious formation averaging 30 ft thick and with hydraulic

conductivity K of 0.25 ft/hr joins them. Determine the flow rate Q of seepage from the river to the channel.

Confining Layer Aquifer 30 ft
Confining Layer
Aquifer
30 ft

Example 2: Confined Aquifer

Consider 1-ft (i.e. unit) lengths of the river and

small channel.

Q = KA [(h 1 – h 2 ) / L]

Example 2: Confined Aquifer • • Consider 1-ft (i.e. unit) lengths of the river and small

K

Where:

A = (30 x 1) = 30 ft 2 = (0.25 ft/hr) (24 hr/day) = 6 ft/day

Therefore, Q = [6ft/day (30ft 2 ) (120 – 110ft)] / 2000ft Q = 0.9 ft 3 /day for each 1-foot length