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FUNDAMENTALS OF

CONVEYOR SYSTEMS

Presented by:
Laura Hoggan, Rubber & Plastics

Topics to be Covered
System Maintenance
Belt Maintenance
Anatomy of a belt
Common Frac Sand belt specifications and designs

Section I: System Maintenance

System Square

A conveyor system frame is like a car frame, if your frame is not


square it will throw off other components, creating wear and tear.
The Dragon Tail is the most susceptible area for being out of
square, check it often!

Cleaning

Good system maintenance can be


summed up in two words, Good
Housekeeping.
Check pulleys and rollers for material
build-up.

Loading Area
Having the right
equipment and a good
transaction area is a key
component in system
life and belt life.
Bad Loading can result
in:
Catastrophic failure
Damage to belt
Tracking issues

TO-DO LIST!
Follow OEM guide for lubrication
schedule
Visually inspect:
Rollers, Pulleys, Return rollers & belt
guides for excessive wear, built up
material and damage.
Belt Splice for wear on lace, cracks,
missing components.
Sidewall for damage and missing
sections

Inspect belts:
Tracking properly
Tension

Section II: Belt Maintenance

Belt Tracking/Training
Considerations

Conveyor belt moves toward the end of the roller/idler it


contacts first

Check conveyor system for structural misalignments


Check pulleys and idlers for misalignment and material buildup
Check belt splice for accuracy and straightness
Observe belt in operation empty and loaded for tracking
tendencies
Eliminate Spillage, Off-center loading and build-up of
materials, factors that cause tracking issues

Splice Failures
Inspect lace to ensure all parts are still present
Inspect Vulcanized splices for cracking, splitting and loose
sidewall sections

Belt Repair
Flexco offers a variety of
rip repair fasteners. With
these you can patch soft
spots before they become
rips or a cut or tear in your
belt to extend your belt life
Eli-Flex rubber repair kits for
holes, tears, splits, gouges
and excess wear areas
SuperScrew patch kits for
holes and tears. Provides
water tight

What happens if I install the wrong belt


spec?
Belt will wear faster than
expected
Belt may potentially fail
Cleats and/or Sidewall may
separate from belt

Section III: Anatomy of a belt

Belt Specification Breakdown

3 = Number of Tension Plies


2 = Number of Cross Rigid
Plies

What is a Ply?
A rubber coated layer of fabric
Each fabric layer is a ply
Commonly a Polyester/Nylon
material
Are the strength member of the
belt

How do you know how many plies you have?


Count the number of layers of fabric visible in the belt

CROSS RIGID BELT


Engineered for applications that
take a sharp upturn, with a
heavy cleat and/or corrugated
sidewall.
Cross Rigid belts are rigid across
the belt (fill or weft direction)
Provides lateral reinforcement
that keeps the belting rigid
Cross Rigid belting will
withstand deflection from
horizontal to incline without
bowing or sagging during
operations.

Belt Specification Breakdown


3 = Number of Tension Plies
2 = Number of Cross Rigid Plies

330 = Working tension per


inch width

Working Tension
Working tension is a factor of the fabric/ply
Rated on a per inch width
Fabric strength has a direct impact on minimum pulley
diameter requirements

Why does it matter?


Belt can snap in operation if not rated for the tension of the
system

Belt Specification Breakdown


3 = Number of Tension Plies
2 = Number of Cross Rigid Plies
330 = Working tension per inch width

1/8 = Thickness of Rubber top


cover

Top Cover Thickness


Provides an impact and abrasion resistance layer, protecting
the belt fabric
There are standard cover thicknesses which vary based on
the plies and tension rating of the belt
Custom thicknesses are available but usually require a
minimum quantity purchase

Belt Specification Breakdown


3 = Number of Tension Plies
2 = Number of Cross Rigid Plies
330 = Working tension per inch width
1/8 = Thickness of Rubber top cover

1/16 = Thickness of Rubber


bottom cover

Bottom Cover of a Conveyor Belt


May have a rubber bottom or a bare-back bottom
PVC belts are:
COS = Cover one Side
CBS = Cover both sides

Rubber Belts are:


Called out by actual thickness of cover materials

What is a Bare-Back?
A conveyor belt with no bottom rubber cover
Bottom of conveyor belt is the fabric from the bottom ply

Why use a Bare-Back?


Slider Bed Applications
Fabric bottom has a lower coefficient of friction than a Rubber
bottom

Belt Specification Breakdown


3 = Number of Tension Plies
2 = Number of Cross Rigid Plies
330 = Working tension per inch width
1/8 = Thickness of Rubber top cover
1/16 = Thickness of Rubber bottom cover

MOR / Grd II = The type of Rubber


Material used in the belt

What Rubber Compounds are


common?
RMA GRADE 1
RMA GRADE 2
MOST COMMON
COMPOUND
GREAT FOR ALL
GENERAL
MATERIALS AND
PRODUCTS
GOOD IMPACT AND
ABRASION
RESISTANCE

MAINLY FOR HIGH


IMPACT, CUTTING
AND ABRASION
APPLICATIONS
MORE NATURAL
RUBBER

BEST IMPACT,
ABRASION AND
GOUGE RESISTANCE

MOR

MAINLY FOR ANY


APPLICATION
WHERE OILS WILL
BE PRESENT. IS
MODERATELY
RESISTANT TO OILS
AND SOLVENTS

Section IV: Common Belt Specifications


and Designs in Fracking

Profile Belts
Why use a profile belt?
Inclines greater than 20
To prevent roll back of
material

Common Profiles
Herringbone
Chevron
V-Cleat
MaxClimb
MegaClimb

Frac Sand Belt Configurations


Sidewall Belt; No cleats

Typically on Sand Delivery Units

Sand Delivery Units receive sand


transported to the well site.

Uses a combination of hoppers and


conveyor belts to move frac sand
to the T-Belt during fracking
operations.

Operates on Troughing Idlers

Details:
Sidewall height
from 2 to 4
Available on any
belt specification

Frac Sand Belt Configurations


Narrow Width MaxClimb w/ Sidewall
Typically on the T-Belt (Dual Belt
Units)
Takes discharge from multiple Sand
Delivery Units and delivers to the
blenders.
Compartmented belt allows for high
angle discharge of materials.
Details:
30 and Narrower belts
1-1/4 tall cleats
Sidewall heights of 2 to 6

Frac Sand Belt Configurations


MaxClimb w/ Sidewall
Typically on the T-Belt (Single Belt
Units)
Takes discharge from multiple Sand
Delivery Units and delivers to the
blenders.
Compartmented belt allows for high
angle discharge of materials.
Details:
30 and Wider belts
1-1/4 tall cleats
Sidewall heights of 2 to 6

Frac Sand Belt Configurations


3 Peg Belt w/ Sidewall
Peg or Finger Belt
Conveys continuous flow of material
Powder to moderate lump sizes
Up to 45 Angles
High material capacity
Can be on Delivery Units or T-Belt
Units

Details:
24 or 30 Wide (Peg pattern is
20)
Available on any belt specification
Pegs are 70 durometer

Belt End Preparation


Super Screw

Hot Vulcanized
Provides 5x greater adhesion
than chemical bonds
Prevents product spillage
through the splice

Mechanical Splice
Installed in Factory, no tools
needed in field

Frack Sand can corrode and wear


down metal fasteners that are not
protected with a rubber cover.
Inspect often to prevent failure!

Mechanically fastened to belt

Can be installed on one end to


expedite field installation

Reduces the installation time


and tools required

How do I know what belt to use?


Belt selection is based on;
Minimum pulley diameter
The configuration of the conveyor system
including;
Type & Style of return
Incline
Changes in incline
Slider bed or troughed rollers
Overall length
Height of incline
Weight of material

Can I change Styles of Frac Belts?


For the most part, Yes.
Ensure new belt configuration fits the system, checking the
following:
Sidewall Height
Cleat clearances (recess, height, etc.)

Belt configuration may alter the speed at which a belt


operates to deliver the same tonnage per minute.

Frac Sand Environmental Concerns


Small Pulley Diameters

Small pulley diameters put chemical bonds under stress, causing pre-mature
failure

Extreme Environments

Extreme cold in South Dakota, Pennsylvania, Canadian markets

Cold temperatures degrade the chemical bond, causing pre-mature failure

Hot vulcanized sidewall is lasting 5x longer than Chemical bonds

Field Location Difficulties

Timeliness to get to breakdown area

Exposure to environment

Potential lack of equipment / power sources

How to determine quality of a belt


Import vs. Domestic
Location of manufacturing doesnt matter, the quality does.

Safety Factors
Ply Adhesion
Elongation
Quality of Value-Add Process;
Key term: Hot Vulcanization