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# SYLLOGISM

Terms, Premises,
Figures and Moods

SYLLOGISM (meaning)
6.1. Syllogism -- a
deductive argument
in which a conclusion
is inferred from two
premises

Categorical
Syllogism
Categorical Syllogism
is a deductive
argument consisting of
three categorical
propositions that
together contain
exactly three terms,
each of which occurs
in exactly two of the
constituent
propositions

Conclusion
Conclusion of a standardform syllogism is a
standard-form
categorical proposition
that contains two of the
syllogisms three terms.
The conclusion is always
used to identify the
terms of the syllogism

## The Three Terms of

Syllogism
The Three Terms:
(1) Major Term -- predicate
of the conclusion;
symbolized by P;
(2) Minor Term -- the
subject term of the
conclusion; symbolized by
S;
(3) Middle Term -- third
term of the syllogism,
which does not occur in the

EXAMPLE
All fish (M) are sea creatues
(P).
(Major Premise)

(Minor Premise)

## Therefore every shark (S) are

sea creatures (P).
(Conclusion)

Premises
Premises:
Major premise contains the
major term; it is the 1st
premise.
Minor premise contains the
minor term; it is the 2nd
premise.

EXAMPLE
All fish swim.
(Major Premise)

Every shark is a
fish.
(Minor Premise)

Therefore every
shark swim.
(Conclusion)

## Figures and Moods

Figures and Moods of
Categorical Syllogism. The
figure of a syllogism indicates
the position of the middle
term in the premises.
The mood of a standard-form
syllogism is determined by the
types (identified by symbol: A,
E, I or O) of the standard-form
categorical propositions

Figures of Syllogism
The following are the valid figures and
their corresponding moods of syllogisms:
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3 Figure
4
MP
PM
MP
PM
SM
SM
MS
MS
S P
S P
S P
S P

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 1: AAA, EAE, AII, EIO
Examples:

Figure 1 AAA: All drivers are licensed; All
messengers are drivers; Therefore, all messengers
Figure 1 EAE: No animals are worthless; All cats
are animals; Therefore, No cats are worthless.
Figure 1 AII: All Christians are baptized; Some
Chinese are Christians; Therefore, some Chinese
are baptized.
Figure 1 EIO: All employees are not
discriminated; Some accountants are employees;
Therefore, some accountants are not discriminated.

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 2: EAE, AEE, EIO, AOO
Figure 2 EAE: No squatters are rich; All
executives are rich;Therefore, all executives
are not squatters.
Figure 2 AEE: All terrorists are bad people;
No seminarians are bad people; Therefore, no
seminarians are terrorists.
Figure 2 EIO: No children are burdensome;
Some lawless elements are burdensome;
Therefore, some lawless elements are not
children.
Figure 2 AOO: Every school administrator
is a responsible person; Some workers are not
responsible persons; Therefore, some workers

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 3: IAI, AII, EIO
Examples:
Figure 3 IAI: Some nursing students
are scholars; All nursing students are
law-abiding citizens; Therefore, some
law-abiding citizens are scholars.
Figure 3 AII: All passengers are
safe; Some passengers are children;
Therefore, some children are safe.
Figure 3 EIO: No activists are
violent; Some activists are students;
Therefore, some students are not
violent

## 2nd TO THE LAST

SLIDE

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 4: AEE, IAI, EIO
Examples:
Figure 4 AEE: All boxers are brave individuals;
All brave individuals are homosexuals; Therefore,
all homosexuals are not boxers.
Figure 4 IAI
Some chefs are internationally known people
All internationally known people are respected
ones
Therefore, some respected ones are chefs.
Figure 4 EIO
All utensils are not imported items
Some imported items are costly goods
Therefore, some costly goods are not utensils.

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