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SYLLOGISM

Terms, Premises,
Figures and Moods

SYLLOGISM (meaning)
6.1. Syllogism -- a
deductive argument
in which a conclusion
is inferred from two
premises

Categorical
Syllogism
Categorical Syllogism
is a deductive
argument consisting of
three categorical
propositions that
together contain
exactly three terms,
each of which occurs
in exactly two of the
constituent
propositions

Conclusion
Conclusion of a standardform syllogism is a
standard-form
categorical proposition
that contains two of the
syllogisms three terms.
The conclusion is always
used to identify the
terms of the syllogism

The Three Terms of


Syllogism
The Three Terms:
(1) Major Term -- predicate
of the conclusion;
symbolized by P;
(2) Minor Term -- the
subject term of the
conclusion; symbolized by
S;
(3) Middle Term -- third
term of the syllogism,
which does not occur in the

EXAMPLE
All fish (M) are sea creatues
(P).
(Major Premise)

Every shark (S) is a fish (M).


(Minor Premise)

Therefore every shark (S) are


sea creatures (P).
(Conclusion)

Premises
Premises:
Major premise contains the
major term; it is the 1st
premise.
Minor premise contains the
minor term; it is the 2nd
premise.

EXAMPLE
All fish swim.
(Major Premise)

Every shark is a
fish.
(Minor Premise)

Therefore every
shark swim.
(Conclusion)

Figures and Moods


Figures and Moods of
Categorical Syllogism. The
figure of a syllogism indicates
the position of the middle
term in the premises.
The mood of a standard-form
syllogism is determined by the
types (identified by symbol: A,
E, I or O) of the standard-form
categorical propositions

Figures of Syllogism
The following are the valid figures and
their corresponding moods of syllogisms:
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3 Figure
4
MP
PM
MP
PM
SM
SM
MS
MS
S P
S P
S P
S P

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 1: AAA, EAE, AII, EIO
Examples:

Figure 1 AAA: All drivers are licensed; All
messengers are drivers; Therefore, all messengers
are licensed
Figure 1 EAE: No animals are worthless; All cats
are animals; Therefore, No cats are worthless.
Figure 1 AII: All Christians are baptized; Some
Chinese are Christians; Therefore, some Chinese
are baptized.
Figure 1 EIO: All employees are not
discriminated; Some accountants are employees;
Therefore, some accountants are not discriminated.

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 2: EAE, AEE, EIO, AOO
Figure 2 EAE: No squatters are rich; All
executives are rich;Therefore, all executives
are not squatters.
Figure 2 AEE: All terrorists are bad people;
No seminarians are bad people; Therefore, no
seminarians are terrorists.
Figure 2 EIO: No children are burdensome;
Some lawless elements are burdensome;
Therefore, some lawless elements are not
children.
Figure 2 AOO: Every school administrator
is a responsible person; Some workers are not
responsible persons; Therefore, some workers
are not school administrators.

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 3: IAI, AII, EIO
Examples:
Figure 3 IAI: Some nursing students
are scholars; All nursing students are
law-abiding citizens; Therefore, some
law-abiding citizens are scholars.
Figure 3 AII: All passengers are
safe; Some passengers are children;
Therefore, some children are safe.
Figure 3 EIO: No activists are
violent; Some activists are students;
Therefore, some students are not
violent

2nd TO THE LAST


SLIDE

Moods of Syllogism
Figure 4: AEE, IAI, EIO
Examples:
Figure 4 AEE: All boxers are brave individuals;
All brave individuals are homosexuals; Therefore,
all homosexuals are not boxers.
Figure 4 IAI
Some chefs are internationally known people
All internationally known people are respected
ones
Therefore, some respected ones are chefs.
Figure 4 EIO
All utensils are not imported items
Some imported items are costly goods
Therefore, some costly goods are not utensils.

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