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Cognitive Process

of Organizational
Behaviour
Perception and Attribution
EMG 371-2/3

Learning Objectives
Define the overall nature of perception,

explaining how it differs from sensation


Discuss perceptual selectivity and
organization
Identify the dimensions of social perception,
including stereotyping and halo
Explain the attribution process

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What do you
see in this
picture?

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What is Perception?
Perception is the process of receiving
information about and making sense of the
world around us. It involves deciding which
information to notice, how to categorize
this information and how to interpret it
within
the
framework
of
existing
knowledge

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Factors that influence on


Perception

Factors in the perceiver


Attitudes
Motives
Interests
Experience
Expectations

Factors in the situation


Time
Work Setting
Social Setting

Perception

Factors in the Target


Novelty
Motion
Sounds
Size
Background
Proximity
Similarity
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Sub processes of Perception


External
Environment
Confrontation
Physical
Environme
nt
Sociocultural
Environment

Registration

Feedback

Consequences

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Interpretation

Behavior

Principles of Perceptual Selectivity


External Selection Factors:
Intensity: The more intense the external
stimuli, the more likely it will be perceived.
Size: larger the object, the more likely it

will be perceived.
Contrast: External stimuli that stand out

against the background or that are not


what people are expecting will receive
their attention.
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Principles of Perceptual Selectivity


Repetition: A repeated external stimulus is

more attention getting than a single one.


Motion: People pay more attention to moving

objects in their field of vision than they will


hold to stationary objects.
Novelty and Familiarity: Either a novel or a

familiar situation can serve as an attention


getter.
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Principles of Perceptual Selectivity


Internal Selection Factors:
Internal perceptual selectivity is more

complex.
Learning
Motivation
Personality
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Perceptual Organization
Perceptual

organization explains what


takes place in the perceptual process once
the information from the situation is
received.

The persons perceptual process organizes

the incoming information into a meaningful


whole.
Gestalt psychology
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Principles of perceptual
organization
Figure ground
This principle says that background and the

perceived object are identified separately.

Perceptual grouping
There is a tendency to group several stimuli

together into a recognizable pattern.


This grouping is done by closure, proximity
or similarity.

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Figure - Ground

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Figure - Ground

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Principles of perceptual
organization
Figure ground
This principle says that background and the

perceived object are identified separately.

Perceptual grouping
There is a tendency to group several stimuli

together into a recognizable pattern.


This grouping is done by closure, proximity
or similarity.

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Principles of perceptual
organization
The principles used in grouping are:
Closure: The persons perceptual process will

close the gaps that are unfilled in sensory


input
Continuity:

Continuity principle says a


person will tend to perceive continuous lines
or patterns
Proximity: A group of stimuli that are close
together will be perceived as a whole pattern
of parts belonging together
Similarity: The greater the similarity of the
stimuli, the greater the tendency to perceive
them as a common group (Minority, Women) 17
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Closure

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Continuity

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Proximity

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Similarity

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Principles of perceptual
organization
Perceptual constancy:
Individuals have a sense of constancy in a

tremendously variable and complex world.


The size, shape, color, brightness, and
location of an object are fairly constant
regardless of the information received by
the senses.
Perceptual context:
Context gives meaning and value to stimuli,
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objectives events, and others persons in the


environment.
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Social perception
Social Perception is concerned with how one

individual perceives other individuals:


How does one get to know others.
How people perceive others in their day to day

to life?

Some of the research findings related to social

perception are:
One's

own
characteristics
affect
the
characteristics one is likely to see in others.
Person who evaluate themselves favorably are
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more likely to be able to see favorable aspects23

Problem areas related to


social perception
Stereotyping
Stereotyping is perceiving a persons based on the

group in which he is a member


Such groups can be supervisors, knowledge
workers, old persons, women, different religions
etc
The real individual traits and characteristics of a
person are ignored and a set of traits thought to
be exhibited by a group are perceived instead.

Halo Effect
In halo effect, the person is perceived based on

the basis of one trait exhibited by him


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What is Attribution?
Attribution refers to how people explain

the cause of anothers or their own


behavior
The determination depends on three

factors:

Distinctiveness

Consensus

Consistency
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Types of Attributions

Insert Figure 4.3 here

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Attribution Theory

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Attribution Errors
Fundamental attribution error

overestimating the personal causes for others


behavior while underestimating the situational
causes
Self-serving bias

attributing personal success to internal factors


and personal failure to external factors
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Thank You

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