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W O R L D T R A D E O R G A N I Z AT I O N ( W T O ) A G R E E M E N T S

By Hira Qaisar Raza

and importers conduct their business. . • The goal is to help producers of goods and services.WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO) • Only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. exporters.

• Anti-dumping is popular mainly because world trade rules allow it. .DUMPING DUTIES • The developed countries are slapping anti-dumping duties (ADD) on imports from the developing countries.AGREEMENT ON ANTI. • Important aspect duties can be presented not as protection but as compensation against “unfair” competition.

• The export declined by $ 67 million over 1998-99. . Japanese Spinners Association levied ADD on cotton yarn. • In 1995. • Setback to cotton yarn export.Effects on textile & clothing industry • This new wave of anti-dumping cases is particularly alarming for Pakistan. • Japan.9 per cent ADD on Pakistan's yarn. • This use of anti-dumping rise due after the removal of the quotas system. levied 9. the biggest market for Pakistan's cotton yarn.

• Imposing quotas on the amount developing countries could export to developed countries.MULTI FIBRE ARRANGEMENT (MFA) • The Multi Fibre Arrangement (MFA) . • Absolute advantage because it is labour-intensive. • This contained rules for the imposition of selective quantitative restraints. • It expired on 1 January 2005.1974 to 2004. .

• A major aim of the Multi-fibre agreement. . • Opportunity to gain employment in the textile and apparel industry. • MFA quota regime helped to raise.EFFECTS • Bangladesh suffer the most from the ending of the MFA. • Bangladesh’s labour is "cheaper than anywhere else in the world.