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Genetics

Louis Younge, Áine Fleming, Sabrina Keane, Patrick Ryan

History of .

In this pea plant experiment he had worked with the seven characteristics of pea plants. Gregor Mendel had a pea plant experiment that he founded between 1856 and 1863. . pod colour. With the seed colour he showed that when a yellow pea and a green pea plant were bred together their plant colour would always be yellow. seed colour. seed shape. flower position and colour. These characteristics are plant height. pod shape.• Many centuries ago farmers had known that the crossbreeding of animals and plants would lead to both a mixture of physical and mental exchange of characteristics.

the gene for brown eyes is dominant and the gene for blue eyes is recessive. because of this appearance he explained this by creating the words 'recessive gene' and 'dominant gene'.g. . A dominant gene means that it is present no matter what.• But in the next generation of pea plants the green pea plants had a higher ratio. A recessive gene means the gene is only present when no dominant gene is present. E. So a child that gets the brown and blue eye gene will have brown eyes and if the child gets two blue eye genes its eyes will be blue.

. In doing so he had made a hybrid strain.000 plants and studies the seven different characteristics of the plants. Gregor Mendel had worked with 29. A hybrid strain means a mix of two different species of animals and plants. Gregor Mandal then started experimenting with honeybees because he wanted to extend his work with animals.• These words are words to explain different characteristics. The hybrid strain was so different that it killed a lot of bees. Gregor Mendel could not get a clear picture of the mixed and physical characteristics that were being passed on from honeybee to honeybee because of the difficulties in controlling the mating behaviour of the queen bees.

Chromosomes .

• DNA contains the specific instructions to make each type of living creature unique. • Chromosomes are made up of both protein and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • The term ‘chromosomes’ comes from the Greek words colour (chroma) and body (soma). . This name was given to chromosomes as they are cell structures that are strongly stained by colourful dyes used in research. • A chromosome carries genetic information in the form of genes.What is a Chromosome? • A chromosome is a thread like structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells.

each parent contributes one set of chromosomes to their offspring.• How are Chromosomes inherited? • One chromosome is inherited from the female parent and the other from the male parent. • During reproduction. .

• For cells to function properly cells must constantly divide to produce new cells and replace old ones. • If some people are born with one extra chromosome (47) have three copies of chromosome 21 (2 copies found in other people) which results in Down Syndrome. .• How many Chromosomes do humans have? • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. • Chromosomes keep DNA molecules tightly wrapped around histones. for a total of 46 chromosomes.

• Chromosomes were first observed by scientists in the late 1800s. • Females have two X chromosomes while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.• Not all things have the same types of chromosomes • Bacteria have one or two circular chromosomes • Humans/plants/animals have linear chromosomes which are arranged in pairs within the nucleus of the cell • A centromere is the constricted region of linear chromosomes which are not located exactly in the centre of the chromosome. • Thomas Hunt Morgan’s pioneering studies came to a .

Genetic .

000 . Autosomal dominant Familial hypercholesterolemia 1 in 500 Polycystic kidney disease 1 in 1250 Neurofibromatosis type I 1 in 2.000 1 in 40. Each affected person usually Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency has one affected parent.000[2] Huntington's disease 1 in 15.000 1 in 12.[7] Glycogen storage diseases The chance a child will inherit Galactosemia the mutated gene is 50%.000[3] Autosomal recessive Sickle cell anaemia Only one mutated copy of the Cystic fibrosis Tay-Sachs disease gene will be necessary for a Phenylketonuria person to be affected by an Mucopolysaccharidoses autosomal dominant disorder.000 1 in 25.000 1 in 50. Over 4000 human diseases are caused by single gene defects.000 1 in 57.000 Marfan syndrome 1 in 4.000 1 in 3.500 Hereditary spherocytosis 1 in 5.Types of diseases Disorder prevalence (approximate) Autosomal dominant Autosomal recessive A single gene disorder is the result of a single mutated gene. Single gene disorders can be passed on to subsequent generations in several ways. 1 in 625 1 in 2.

Down syndrome occurs when someone has an extra or a small copy of chromosome 21 • Trisomy 21 is an example of down syndrome.Down Syndrome • In every cell in the human body there is a nucleus where genetic material is stored in genes. The nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes half are inherited from each parent. This happens when an egg or sperm cell fails to separate at conception resulting in the chromosome 21 being replicated in every cell . Genes carry the codes for all of our inherited traits and are grouped into structures called chromosomes.

Serial killers • XXY • Dr Helen Morrison studied 135 serial killers . studied brains for over 20 years he studied his own brain his sons and compared them psychopaths • He found that he had the same low orbital cortex activity as a serial killer • He then studied his ancestry and discovered a whole lineage of murderers • Studied his family's genes • MAO-A-GENE – warrior gene • Serotonin affects your mood .she has found shocking similarities and a chromosome abnormality is a likely trigger • Jim fallon neuroscientist.

com/watch?v=u2V0vOFexY4 .youtube.Video • http://www.

What Now? .

we will soon be able to view and assess our genes. we will soon be able to add. remove or modify specific genes as we please. will soon be able to conquer this condition. who suffer from a blood thinning disease. . • Also. • The British Royal family.Medical Magic • With recent medical advancements. • This means we will be capable of stopping hereditary diseases or conditions.

Designer Babies • However. • Babies will be shaped. this genetic control may be abused in the future. both physically and otherwise. • Everyone can have their dream child • Is this a good thing? .

Recently. • It will let you view all of your inheritable genes. which we will soon be able to change in your children . • A company called 23AndMe has had its patent granted for a gene inheritance calculator • This calculator has not yet been made available...