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Physics of Human Body

The cell .

filaments. ribosomes. or ER). such as mitochondria (the “powerhouse” of the cell). The nucleus is also associated with characteristic organelles.The cell •The basic unit of biological tissue •The boundary of cell is plasma membrabne (consisting of a bilayer mainly of phospholipids (which are types of fat) with embedded proteins. in humans. •The central region is the nucleus (also surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane). and cavernous structures (the latter is known as the endoplasmic reticulum. such as centrosomes and nucleolus. Golgi complex. vacuoles. and secretory granules. . •The rest of the cell (the cytoplasm) is far from being a simple fluid—it is a matrix of microtubules. contains the genetic “blueprint” consisting of some 30. lysosomes. •There are also discrete structures (organelles) within the cytoplasm. which.000 genes organized into 46 chromosomes.

Diagrammatic representation .

CO2 .Body fluids • The body is almost two-thirds of fluid(56% approx. magnesium and phosphate ions • Extracellular fluid: sodium.) • Intracellular fluid: pottasium. glucose. fatty acids. chloride.

fatty acids. glucose. CO2 .) • Intracellular fluid: pottasium.Body fluids • The body is almost two-thirds of fluid(56% approx. magnesium and phosphate ions • Extracellular fluid: sodium. chloride.

Electrolyte • Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. including: • The amount of water in your body • The acidity of your blood (pH) • Your muscle function • Other important processes • You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes. Water does not contain electrolytes. . • Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways.

gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350. or salts.nlm. They can be measured by different blood tests. Each electrolyte can be measured separately. bases. such as: • Ionized calcium • Serum calcium • Serum chloride • Serum magnesium • Serum phosphorus • Serum potassium • Serum sodium • Note: Serum is the part of blood that doesn't contain cells. https://www.nih.htm .How can electrolytes be measured • Electrolytes can be acids.

Main electrolytes in a body fluid .

Musculoskeletal system • The muscles and bones of the body provide locomotion • Skeletal system: consists of bones and cartilages • Muscles: connected between bones across a joint so that the bones move with respect to each other when muscles contracts. .

Skeletal Muscles .

Skeletal system .

0µm of membrane separates the air carrying aveoli from the pulmonary capillaries(tiny blood vassels) • Gaseous oxygen diffuses across this membrane into the blood stream. • System parts: Nose.4 to 2. trachea. . Mouth. into the alveoli. to be exheled into the atmosphere. bronchii and lungs. • Deoxygenated blood from right side of the heart passes through the lungs: only 0. while CO2 comes out of the blood.Respiratory system • The respiratory system takes oxygen into body and gives off carbon dioxide waste products from the cell.

Respiratory system .

Mechanics of breathing .

NEXT CLASS Nervous System. The heart and the circulatory system. Body as a control system .