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Chapter review…
Growth
Growth
phases

Growth
rate

Growth
measurement

Definition

Wet/fresh Dry
Phases of growth mass
mass
Cell division

Absolute
Growth
curve

growth
curve

Absolute
Limited growth rate
(annualcurve

Cell
enlargement

sigmoi
human
d
Cell
intermitte
plants)
differentiation
Unlimited
nt
(perennial
plants)
Growth under extreme
condition

Seed
dormancy

hibernation

Aestivation

Diapause

Growth Phases
Objectives

By the end of the lesson the students should be
able to:
(i) define the term growth
(ii) name the three phases of growth
(iii) describe the three phases of growth

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Growth Phases Introduction A series of changes in the life of an organism –from zygote to adult – involves two major processes: (i) Growth (ii) Development 2 .

Growth Phases Definition of Growth Any irreversible and permanent increase in quantitative parameters that can be measured such as: size surface area length volume cytoplasmic mass height dry mass number of cells 3 .

Growth Phases Definition of Development Any qualitative change and involve cell differentiation: shape specificity complexity 4 .

it divides to produce 2 daughter cells of smaller size  cell division is followed by the growth of 2 daughter cells until achieve the size of mature unicellular organism .size cytoplasmic mass Growth Phases 5 Growth in Unicellular Organisms  is controlled by the size of its cytoplasm that is controlled by its nucleus  when achieve a certain size.

Growth Phases Growth in Unicellular Organisms differentiation is very limited in unicellular organism reproduce asexually through binary fission for population growth to take place 6 .

Repeated divisions • produce new daughter cells • of smaller size 2.22. Limited growth • i. equals to those of parent cells’ • also limited differentiation 7 .e.1 Growth Phases Growth in Unicellular Organisms 1.

Growth Phases Increase in Changes in Growth in Multicellular Organisms Size of organism Appearance heightthe complexity Develop Weight function of the characteristic and Physical organism Number of cells 8 .

Growth Phases Growth in Multicellular Organisms Three phases: 3. Cell enlargement 1. Cell divisions 8 . Cell differentiation 2.

the number of cells increase 9 . Cell Division • The basic process in growth • mitotic cell division in all somatic cells • Through mitosis.Growth Phases 1.

Growth Phases 1. the species and other conditions – physical. Cell Division • Gave the living world an opportunity to increase the size of the organisms • Rate of division depends on the cell types. chemical 10 .

Cell Enlargement • the increase in the cell size and volume  increase in the cytoplasmic content.g.Growth Phases 2. number of organelles 11 . e.

into the large central vacuole. Cell Enlargement  Plants . or . accounts for 90% of plant cell’s expansion 12 .cells grow by adding organic material to their cytoplasm.Growth Phases 2.addition of water.

cells grow by synthesizing a protein. Cell Enlargement  Animals .Growth Phases 2. a metabolically expensive process 13 .rich cytoplasm.

Growth Phases 2. Cell Enlargement • each cell grows to the limit the ability of the cell nucleus to support the increase in cytoplasmic volume • the cell divides before it reaches the limit 14 .

same set of genetic information to produce a diversity of cell types 15 . Cell Differentiation • the cell undergoes change in form in order to perform specialized functions .Growth Phases 3.

Cell Differentiation divides repeatedly resulting in a group of cells  the cells start to differentiate from each other in its structure and chemical composition 16 .Growth Phases • the adult cell 3.

in the cells destined to be the blood tissue • there’s an increase in the amount of hemoglobin molecules and carbonic anhydrase  disappearance of nucleus  enhance the ability for transportation of O2 and CO2 17 . Cell Differentiation • e. 1: red blood cells • in embryonic stages.g.Growth Phases 3.

Growth Phases 3. Cell Differentiation • e. 2: meristematic vascular cells • the meristematic cells differentiate into:  xylem: transportation of water and minerals  phloem: transportation of products of photosynthesis and hormones 18 .g.

1 Growth Phases Influential Factors 2 major factors of growth: extrinsic and intrinsic: in plants: • extrinsic factors light intensity. water. soil and minerals in animals: nutrients. oxygen 19 . humidity.22. temperature. duration of light period.

gibberillins. hypothalamus.1 Growth Phases Influential Factors 20 • intrinsic factors  in plants: plant hormones @ phytohormones e.g. thyroid.g. pituitary. cytokinins  in animals: hormone secretions of glands e.22. auxins. gonads – promote or inhibit growth in animals .

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Measuring Growth Objectives By the end of the lesson the students should be able to: (i) describe the methods in measuring growth (ii) define the terms dry mass and wet mass (iii) describe the advantages and the disadvantages of measuring dry mass and wet mass of the given specimens 1 .

Length .Biomass ( dry or fresh ) .Number .Measuring Growth • Growth involves the increasing of protoplasm of an organism.Width . • Growth can be estimated by measuring a particular parameter over a specific time.Volume .Surface Area 2 .Height . • The best parameter and commonly used to measure growth are:.Size .

Measuring Growth Estimate length/ height • Periodic linear measurement Eg: Measuring height for human being – the best way to measure the growth of an individual 3 .

size of leave leaves.Measuring Growth 3 Estimate length/ height • Periodic linear measurement .Plant • height is not a suitable parameter • the growth is measure by the length of branches. Auxanometer Measure Length of stem . root and the food storage structures underneath the ground.

Measuring Growth • Surface area of a leave can be determine by draw the outline of the leave at a graph paper or square paper (1cm x 1cm) and count the square inside the leave outline • What is the surface are for the leave?  20 cm2 Surface Area / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 11 .

Measuring Growth the more appropriate parameters for the measurement of growth in multicellular organisms are the weight or mass • wet mass/weight • dry mass/weight 4 .

Measuring Growth Wet Mass • the mass of the organism in the normal condition The advantages • easier and convenient to measure • no need to destroy the specimen • the same organism can be used for repeated measurement 5 .

90% wet mass ) • shows greater variation due to the environment or the organism behavior 6 .Measuring Growth Wet Mass The disadvantages • inaccurate and inconsistent • because it is affected by the fluctuation of the amount of water in the organism ( water ~ 70 .

apart from water 7 .Measuring Growth Dry Mass: Definition • the mass of the organism after its water content is fully eliminated • it implies the actual growth of the organism • the actual growth is the change/increase in the amount of other substances.

Measuring Growth Dry Mass: Methods 1. 3. The above procedures are repeated until a constant value is obtained. 5. it is put inside a desiccator to ensure the water is completely eliminated. 8 . …then transferred into the oven at 110°C to eliminate its water content. The dried specimen is weighed. Next. The specimen is destroyed… 2. 4.

depends on the water intake by the individual organism 9 .Measuring Growth Dry Mass The advantages • more accurate • the amount of water in an organism is not constant.e. i.

specimens of the similar age. size are required (destroyed!) to avoid or minimize errors in the measurement • Large samples of genetically identical organism need to be grown under similar condition • Time consuming 10 .Measuring Growth Dry Mass The disadvantages • destruction of specimens • in repeated measurement.