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Acoelomate & Pseudocoelomate

Bilaterian Animals

Organ grade
Bilaterally symmetrical

Tissue grade
Radially symmetrical
Cellular grade

Division of Bilateria
Body plan

Division of Bilateria .

including:– Nemertea – Gnathostomula – Gastrotricha .Bilaterian Acoelomates • Phylum Platyhelminthes • Other Phyla.

500 spp Class Trematoda Flukes ~12.Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria Mostly free-living flatworms ~3.500 spp Entirely parasitic Derived from Turbellaria Class Cestoda Tapeworms ~3.500 spp .

Characteristics • Bilaterally symmetric • Sac-like or branched blind-ending gut • Body monomeric (no segmentation. “skeleton” parenchymatous tissue • No circulatory system • Circular & longitudinal muscles • Ciliated epidermis (free-living forms) . but see tapeworms) • No body cavity (acoelomate).

Prostheceraeus vittatus Candy stripe flatworm Turbellaria Arthurdendyus triangularis New Zealand Flatworm .

Turbellaria .

Reproduction • Most platyhelminths are hermaphrodites (both sexes in same individual) • Eggs may be entolecithal (yolk in cytoplasm of ovum) or ectolecithal (yolk cells external to ovum) • Sometimes a larva. sometimes direct development • Some can reproduce asexually by fission .

Parasitic Flatworms • Class Trematoda (flukes) – Monogenea – direct life cycles – Digenea – indirect (complex) life cyles • Class Cestoda (tapeworms) .

Monogenea Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenea) Salmon Fluke Opisthaptor (haptor) .

Monogenea .

Digenean Life Cycles Meta cercaria Adult eggs Cercaria Asexual division .

Digenea Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) .

Schistosoma spp. (Bilharzia) • Atypical – dioecious • Abbreviated life cycle • 2 hosts – Snail and human • 3 species – S. haematobium (bladder) • Importance – >200. japonicum (liver) – S. mansoni (liver) – S.000 deaths per year million cases of infection estimated) (~200 .

Schistosoma spp. (Bilharzia) .

Cestoda (tapeworms) Proglottids Scolex .

Platyhelminth summary • Flatworms – Simple body plan – Single opening to gut – No body cavity – Diverse group – Aquatic and terrestrial – Important parasitic representatives – Ciliated epidermis (free-living forms) .

Bilaterian Pseudocoelomates • Phylum Nematoda • Other Phyla:– Nematomorpha – horsehair worms – Rotifera – Acanthocephala – spiny-headed worms – Priapula – Kinorhyncha – Loricifera .

Nematode Characteristics • • • • • • Complex cuticle Complete gut No circular muscles Pseudocoel body cavity No circulatory system Usually dioecious (separate sexes) .

we should find its mountains. vales. as disembodied spirits. and if. lakes and oceans represented by a thin film of nematodes…… (Cobb 1915) . hills. we could investigate it. our world would still be dimly recognisable.Nematoda If all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away. rivers.

~ 10 million per m 2 soil • Important parasites e. root-knot nematodes) . (25% human population affected). hookworms (~600 million people affected).Nematode importance • > 20.g. Ascaris spp.000 species so far described (may be > 1 million!) • Very abundant .g. filarial nematodes (elephantiasis) • Plant pathogens (e.

Free-living Nematodes • Some of the most abundant animals • Terrestrial and aquatic • Often interstitial (meiofauna) .

Nematoda TS Oesophagus region Generalised anatomy Male TS Intestine region .

Nematoda Generalised anatomy Female .

Nematoda – Buccal cavity Buccal cavity is variable in structure – it may be absent. have fixed teeth or movable mandibles It is of taxonomic importance and conveys ecological information by indicating the feeding specialisation of the species Selective deposit feeders Non-selective deposit feeders . present & lacking teeth.

Nematoda Buccal cavity Omnivores / predators Epigrowth feeders Predators .

Nematoda Anterior part of gut is a muscular oesophagus / pharynx with a pronounced posterior oesophageal bulb – but there is some variation between species .

Nematoda Cuticle Cuticle may be smooth or have ornamentation This may consist of transverse annulations / striations or it may be punctate Ornamentation can be homogeneous or heterogeneous Ornamentation may differ on the sides of the body – lateral differentiation .

Nematoda Movement Movement is characteristically serpentine No circular muscles so can not extend body – movement is by alternate contractions of dorsal & ventral longitudinal muscles working against high internal turgor pressure .

Meloidogyne sp.Plant Pathogens • Root knot nematodes (e.) (account for ~5% global crop loss) • Potato cyst nematodes (can cause 60% drop in yield) .g.

Parasitic nematodes • Ascaris spp. • Sealworms (Anisakis) .

life cycle .Ascaris sp.

Nematode summary • Roundworms – Complex cuticle – Body cavity is a pseudocoelom – Very diverse & abundant group – Aquatic and terrestrial – Important parasitic representatives .