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Lipid rafts

Lipid rafts are specialized microdomains in the plasma

membrane that are rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol
Lipid rafts appear to function in signaling

Cell Surfaces
Plant cells have a cell wall made from cellulose
Plant cell walls
protect the cells,
maintain cell shape, and
keep cells from absorbing too much water.

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Cell Surfaces
Animal cells
lack cell walls and
most secrete a sticky coat called the extracellular

Fibers made of the protein collagen

hold cells together in tissues and
can have protective and supportive functions.

In addition, the surfaces of most animal cells contain

cell junctions, structures that connect cells together into
tissues, allowing the cells to function in a coordinated
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Cell Junction
Cell junction is the connection between the neighbouring cells or the
contact between the cell and extracellular matrix.
It is also called membrane junction.
Cell junction are classified into three types
a-Occluding junction
b-Communicating junction
c-Adhering junction.
Important for many normal biological processes -embryonic cell
migration, immune system functions, wound healing.
Involved in intracellular signaling pathways

Occluding Junction
A cell-cell junction that seals cells together in a way that
prevents even small molecules from leaking from one side of
the sheet to the other.
Tight Junction- occluding junctions are the closely
associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together
forming a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid.

A type of junctional complex present only in vertebrates.

Consist of linear array of several integral proteins.

Strength and stability
Selective permeable for ions.
Fencing function
Blood brain barrier

Communicating Junction
Cell junction which permit the intercellular exchange of
substance are called communicating junction, these junction
permit the movement of ions and molecules from one cell to
another cell.

Gap junction-Gap junctions are clusters of intercellular channels

that allow direct diffusion of ions and small molecules between
adjacent cells.

Adhering Junctions
Desmosome- Connects intermediate filament of
one cell with other cells. A cell structure
specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion,
Desmosomes hold two cells tightly together.

Organelles Composed of Membranes

Plasma membrane (cell membrane)
Different cellular membranous structures serve different functions
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Vacuoles and vesicles
Nuclear membrane

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The Nucleus and Ribosomes: Genetic Control

of the Cell
The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
Each gene is a stretch of DNA that stores the
information necessary to produce a particular
Proteins do most of the actual work of the cell.

The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a

double membrane called the nuclear envelope.
Pores in the envelope allow certain materials to
pass between the nucleus and the surrounding

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Figure 4.6

Chromatin fiber


Surface of nuclear envelope

Nuclear pores

The Nucleus
Within the nucleus, long DNA molecules and
associated proteins form fibers called chromatin.
Each long chromatin fiber constitutes one
The nucleolus is
a prominent structure within the nucleus and
the site where the components of ribosomes are

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Figure 4.7

DNA molecule



Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis.
In eukaryotic cells, the components of ribosomes are made in the
nucleus and then transported through the pores of the nuclear
envelope into the cytoplasm, where ribosomes begin their work.
Although structurally identical, some ribosomes are suspended in
the cytosol, making proteins that remain within the fluid of the
Others are attached to the outside of the nucleus or an organelle
called the endoplasmic reticulum, making proteins that are
incorporated into membranes or secreted by the cell.

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Figure 4.10-s3


1 Synthesis of
mRNA in the




2 Movement of
mRNA into
cytoplasm via
nuclear pore


3 Synthesis of
protein in the
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The Endoplasmic Reticulum

Consists of folded membranes and tubes throughout the cell
Provides a large surface area for important chemical reactions
Because it is folded, it fits into a small space.
Two types of ER
Has ribosomes on its surface
Sites of protein synthesis
Lacks ribosomes
Metabolizes fats
Detoxifies damaging chemicals


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Figure 4.12

3 Secretory
proteins depart.

4 Vesicles bud off

from the ER.

2 Proteins are
modified in
the ER.


1 A ribosome
links amino

Rough ER

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The Golgi Apparatus

Stacks of flattened membrane
Modifies molecules that
were made in other places
Manufactures some
polysaccharides and lipids
Packages and ships

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Figure 4.13

Receiving side of the

Golgi apparatus

Transport vesicle
from rough ER

Receiving side of
the Golgi apparatus


Shipping side of
the Golgi apparatus
New vesicle forming


from the

Traffic Through the Golgi

Vesicles bring molecules from the ER that
contain proteins.
Vesicles fuse with the Golgi apparatus.
The Golgi finishes the molecules and ships them
out in other vesicles.
Some are transported to other membrane
Some are transported to the plasma membrane.
Some vesicles become lysosomes.


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A lysosome is a membrane-enclosed sac of
digestive enzymes found in animal cells.
Most plant cells do not contain lysosomes.
Enzymes in a lysosome can break down large
molecules such as
fats, and
nucleic acids.
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Lysosomes have several types of digestive functions.
Many single-celled protists engulf nutrients in tiny
cytoplasmic sacs called food vacuoles.
Lysosomes fuse with the food vacuoles, exposing the
food to digestive enzymes.
Small molecules that result from this digestion, such as
amino acids, leave the lysosome and nourish the cell.

Lysosomes can also

destroy harmful bacteria,
engulf and digest parts of another organelle, and
sculpt tissues during embryonic development, helping to
form structures such as fingers.

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The importance of lysosomes to cell function and
human health is made clear by hereditary disorders
called lysosomal storage diseases.
A person with such a disease
is missing one or more of the digestive enzymes
normally found within lysosomes and
has lysosomes that become engorged with
indigestible substances, which eventually interfere
with other cellular functions.

Most of these diseases are fatal in early childhood.

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A central vacuole can account for more than half
the volume of a mature plant cell.
The central vacuole of a plant cell is a versatile
compartment that may
store organic nutrients,
absorb water, and
contain pigments that attract pollinating insects or
poisons that protect against plant-eating animals.

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Energy Transformations: Chloroplasts and

A cell converts energy obtained from the
environment to forms that the cell can use directly.
Two organelles act as cellular power stations:
1. chloroplasts and
2. mitochondria.

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Most of the living world runs on the energy
provided by photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy
from the sun to
the chemical energy of sugar and
other organic molecules.

Chloroplasts are
unique to the photosynthetic cells of plants and
algae and
the organelles that perform photosynthesis.
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Chloroplasts are divided into compartments by two
membranes, one inside the other.
The stroma is a thick fluid found inside the
innermost membrane.
Suspended in that fluid is a network of membraneenclosed disks and tubes, which form another
The disks occur in interconnected stacks called
grana that resemble stacks of poker chips.
The grana are a chloroplasts solar power packs, the
structures that trap light energy and convert it to
chemical energy.
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Figure 4.17

Inner and outer


Space between
Stroma (fluid in


An envelope of two membranes encloses the
mitochondrion, and the inner membrane encloses a
thick fluid called the mitochondrial matrix.
The inner membrane of the envelope has
numerous infoldings called cristae.
The folded surface of the membrane
includes many of the enzymes and other molecules
that function in cellular respiration and
creates a greater area for the chemical reactions of
cellular respiration.
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Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own
DNA that encodes some of their own proteins
made by their own ribosomes.
Each chloroplast and mitochondrion
contains a single circular DNA chromosome that
resembles a prokaryotic chromosome and
can grow and pinch in two, reproducing themselves.

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This is evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts
evolved from ancient free-living prokaryotes that
established residence within other, larger host
This phenomenon, where one species lives inside a
host species, is a special type of symbiosis.
Over time, mitochondria and chloroplasts likely
became increasingly interdependent with the host
prokaryote, eventually evolving into a single
organism with inseparable parts.

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Figure 4.UN14

Light energy





The Cytoskeleton: Cell Shape and Movement

The cytoskeleton
is a network of fibers extending throughout the
cytoplasm and
serves as both skeleton and muscles for the cell,
functioning in support and movement.

The cytoskeleton
provides mechanical support to the cell and
helps a cell maintain its shape.

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Maintaining Cell Shape

The cytoskeleton contains several types of fibers
made from different proteins.
Microtubules are hollow tubes of protein.
The other kinds of cytoskeletal fibers, called
intermediate filaments and microfilaments, are
thinner and solid.
The cytoskeleton provides anchorage and
reinforcement for many organelles in a cell.

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Figure 4.19-1

(a) Microtubules in the cytoskeleton

Maintaining Cell Shape

A cells cytoskeleton is dynamic.
It can be quickly dismantled in one part of the cell by
removing protein subunits and re-formed in a new
location by reattaching the subunits.
Such rearrangement can
provide rigidity in a new location,
change the shape of the cell,
or even cause the whole cell or some of its parts to

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Figure 4.19-2

(b) Microtubules and movement

Cilia and Flagella

In some eukaryotic cells, microtubules are
arranged into structures called flagella and cilia,
extensions from a cell that aid in movement.
Eukaryotic flagella propel cells through an
undulating, whiplike motion.
They often occur singly, such as in human sperm
cells, but may also appear in groups on the outer
surface of protists.

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Figure 4.20-1

(a) Flagellum of a
human sperm cell

Cilia and Flagella

Cilia (singular, cilium)
are generally shorter and more numerous than
flagella and
move in a coordinated back-and-forth motion, like
the rhythmic oars of a crew team.

Both cilia and flagella propel various protists

through water.

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Figure 4.20-2

(b) Cilia on a protist