You are on page 1of 30

MOTIVATION

ABILITY

MOTIVATION

COMPREHENSIVE
APPRAISAL SYSTEM
Determine ability required
Match ability of job and employee
Improve employees abilities
(staff development)
Enhance employees motivation (reward
system)

A simplified model of job


performance
MOTIVATION

ABILITY

Benefits

Responsibiliti

Job design
Leadership

es
Education
Basic/
advanced
Skills/abilitie
s

style
Recruitment
and selection
Employee
goals/needs/
abilities

EMPLOYEE
PERFORMANCE
Daily performance
Attendance
Punctuality
Adherence to
Policies/procedures
Absence of incidents
errors/accidents
Honesty
Trustworthiness

Systematic, standardized evaluation of


an employee by the supervisor, aimed
at judging the value of the employees
work contribution, quality of work, and
potential for advancement

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Definition
The process of interaction, written

documentation, formal interview and follow up


that occurs between managers and their
employees in order to give feedback, make
decisions and cover fair employment practice
law
- Eleanor J Sullivan

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Definition
Is a periodic formal evaluation of how

well the nurse has performed her duties


during a specified period
-

Ann Mariner

To improve performance
Letting employee know where they

stand
Giving performance feedback - strongest
nonfinancial reward!

Purposes

Determine job competence


Enhance staff development
Discover employees aspirations
Improve communications
Aid in managers coaching and counseling
Determine training and developmental needs
Make inventories of talents
Select for advancement of salary
Identify unsatisfactory employees

Evaluation Philosophy
ABSOLUTE JUDGEMENT:

Based on reasonable and acceptable


standards set by the organization
COMPARATIVE JUDGEMENT:

Employees are compared with each other

Errors in evaluation
Halo error
Horns error
Contrast error
Leniency error
Recency error

1. Halo effect: it is the tendency to over rate a persons

2.

3.

4.
5.

performance or overemphasize a positive event, i.e


rating the person higher than deserved, for various
reason.
Horn effect: it is the tendency to rate an employee
lower than that persons performance, for various
reasons or overemphasise a negative event and
underrate total performance.
Contrast error: error caused by the effect of
previously interviewed or appraised applicants on the
interviewer.It result in a conscious comparison of one
applicant with the another and tends to exaggerate
the differences.
Leniency error: occurs when a manager or
interviewer rate an employee too positively.
Recency error: caused by the evaluators or the
interviewer relience on the most recent occurance of
the employee behaviour.

Guidelines for Performance Criteria


Realistic
Measurable and verifiable
Practical
Relevant
Non Discriminating
Stable
Time bound
Written

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS


Step 1: Performance standards are establised based
on job description and job specification.
Step 2:Inform the standards to all the employees
including appraisers.
Step 3:Measurement of employee performance by the
appraisers through observation.
Step 4:Finding out the influence of various internal
and external factors on actual performance.
Step 5: Comparing the actual performance with other
employees and prevoius performance of the
employee and others.
Step 6: Comparing the actual performance with the
standards and finding out deviations.
Step 7: Communicating the actual performance of the
employees doing the same job and discuss with him
about

Step 6: Comparing the actual performance


with the standards and finding out
deviations.
Step
7:
Communicating
the
actual
performance of the employees doing the
same job and discuss with him about the
reasons
for
positive
and
negative
deviations.
Step8:Suggesting necessary changes in
standards,job analysis.
Step 9:Follow up of performance appraisal
report.

FORMAL AND
INFORMAL PROCESS
Informal - day-to-day
Coaching - approach to developing people
Ongoing, face-to-face collaboration

Formal
Written documentation
Formal appraisal interview with follow-up

Work is measured against some

standard for the purposes of determining


the level of quality of job performance

PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENT TOOLS
Anecdotal Notes
Checklists
Rating Scale
Numerical
Graphic
Descriptive
Frequency rating scale

PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENT
TOOLS

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales


(BARS)/
Behavioral expectation scales (BES)
Behavioral Observation scales (BOS)
Ranking
Management by objectives

Management by
Objectives
Review the mission and group objectives
List major job responsibilities
Determine expected levels of

accomplishment
Meet manager to establish priorities
Develop plans for the accomplishment of the
objectives
Annual review comparison of actual results
with expected levels of accomplishment

Advantages of MBO staff


Works on participative management
Based on characteristics of a specific person and

job
Control and emphasis over future
Awareness of the standards of judgment, goals,
priorities and deadlines
Understanding about progress
Stimulates higher individual performance / morale

Advantages of MBO manager

Reservoir of personnel data and performance


information
Basis for promotion/ compensation
Directs work activities towards organization
goals
Facilitates planning
Objective appraisal criteria
Reduces role conflict

Limitations of MBO

Difficult of implement
Needs teaching and reinforcement

Manager responsible for assessing results and

not activities directed towards results


Some nurses do not want to be involved in
setting goals
Stresses on results but not on methods to
achieve them
Frustration when higher goals are set
Neglects qualitative factors
No comparative data for promotion/ salary
increase

Who is a peer?
A peer is a person of the same

profession, grade or setting.

Peer review
A process whereby a group of

practicing registered nurses evaluate


the quality of another RNs professional
performance
Ann Mariner

A process by which other employees

assess and judge the performance of


professional peers against
predetermined standards
- Eleanor J Sullivan

An organised effort where people critically

appraise, systematically assess, monitor, make


judgements, determine their strengths and
weakness and review the quality of their practice,
to provide evidence to use as the basis of
recommendations by obtaining the opinion of their
peers.

Peer evaluation
process
Review of employees self evaluation form
Reference letters, committee work, special projects,
additional education, contributions to nursing
Performance evaluation by manager
Review of past performance, care plans and
charting
Assessments, observation of the nurse
Interviews with her patients
Summary of findings
Presentation of findings and recommendations to
the nurse

Advantages &
Limitations
Advantages:
Accountability and responsibility for nursing

performance.

Limitations:
Threatening and time consuming
Risk of rating candidates too high or too low

Appraisal interview
style
Purposes of evaluation
Managers philosophy of management
Institutional guidelines

PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL
improve performance
OUTCOMES
improve communication
reinforce positive behavior
method to communicate/correct
provide basis for regards/basis for
motivation
provide basis for termination if necessary
identify learning needs and develop
personnel