Trickling filters

• Trickling filters were the most widely used form of
wastewater treatment in the first half of the twentieth
century. The first trickling filter used for a large public
treatment system was installed in Madison, Wisconsin, in
• By the middle of the twentieth century, suspended growth
activated sludge systems started becoming more common.
• The invention of lightweight, synthetic media increased the
treatment capability of trickling filters.
• Trickling filters are still considered a viable treatment
alternative due to their low energy and maintenance
requirements and their ability to treat variable organic
loads and toxic substances

 gravel.). coke. • The sewage is sprinkled over the media which percolates through filter media and is collected through the sedimentation tank. .WHAT IS TRICKLING FLITER?? • Trickling Filter also known as percolating or sprinkling filter is like a well having depth up to about 2m and filled with some granular media ( lava. slag.

.8m. • A rotating arm (distributor arm) is provided to evenly distribute sewage.TRICKLING FILTER • A modern trickling filter consists of a bed of highly permeable media to which microorganism are attached and sewage percolates or trickle down and hence the name “Trickling Filter”.5m averaging 1.9-2. • The depth of rock varies from 0. • The filter media consists of rocks varying in size from 25-100mm.

Trickling filter .

and a portion of the slime layer falls off the filter. slag. and anaerobic organisms develop. the microorganisms near the surface lose their ability to cling to the medium. • As the wastewater flows over the medium.1 to 0.APPLICABILITY • Trickling Filters enable organic material in the wastewater to be adsorbed by a population of microorganisms attached to the medium as a biological film (approximately 0.2 mm thick). • The organic material is then degraded by the aerobic microorganisms in the outer part of the slime layer. • The sloughed solids are picked up by the underdrain system and transported to a clarifier for removal from the wastewater . or plastic surface and form a film. • As the biological film continues to grow. As the layer thickens through microbial growth. This process is known as sloughing. oxygen cannot penetrate the medium face. microorganisms already in the water gradually attach themselves to the rock.

Trickling Filter System .

a microbial layer develops on the surface of rock which is called slime layer which is mostly consist of bacteria. • (Oxidation of the organic matter is carried out under aerobic conditions. gases and new cells. . The sewage is oxidized by the bacteria producing effluent in the form of water. A bacterial film is formed around the particles of the filtering media and for the existence of this film oxygen is supplied by the intermittent working of the filter and by the provision of the suitable ventilation facilities in the body of the filter).Working Mechanism of Trickling Filter • The settled sewage from primary sedimentation tank is sprinkled intermittently over the filter bed • When sewage trickles down.

Ease of Operation: Trickling filters do not require a high level of sophisticated operation in order to provide a reasonable effluent. A toxic “slug” will only effect the portion of the filter that it is sprayed on. o Trickling filter technology is a simple. thus allowing the remainder of the filter to continue to operate normally. reliable process. Consistent Effluent Quality: Trickling filters perform extremely reliably at low or consistent loadings.ADVANTAGE       Advantages of a Trickling Filter Low Energy Requirements: Trickling filters do not typically require additional energy-consuming equipment such as aeration blowers. . Resistant to Toxins and Shock Loads: Trickling filters have the ability to handle and recover from shock loads since they are not a complete mix system. Low Maintenance Requirements: Since there are only a limited amount of moving parts. trickling filters typically require minimum maintenance.

Icing of the distributor arm orifices or spray nozzles is a common problem during winter months due to the low hydraulic loading onto the filters. Additional treatment may be needed for the effluent to meet strict discharge standards. Trickling filters do not have features which allow them to be quickly adjusted for a rapid increase in loading. . trickling filters can not be fine-tuned to achieve a high level of treatment.DISADVANTAGE  o    Excessive organic loading or inadequate ventilation can lead to anaerobic decomposition in the filter media which can cause objectionable odors flies and other insects can flourish around trickling filters if housekeeping is not maintained or if the filter media moisture is not adequate. In addition.

• The oxygen required for organic degradation is supplied by air circulating through the filter induced by natural draft or ventilation. and a portion of the slime layer falls off the filter. the microorganisms near the surface lose their ability to cling to the medium.Operation • A rotary or stationary distribution mechanism distributes wastewater from the top of the filter percolating it through the medium • As the wastewater moves through the filter. the organic matter is adsorbed onto the film and degraded by a mixed population of aerobic microorganisms. . This process is known as sloughing . • As the biological film continues to grow.

• Microorganisms used  The microorganisms used are mainly facultative bacteria that decompose the organic material in the wastewater along with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. o In the lower reaches of the filter. the nitrifying bacteria are usually present . Flavobacterium.  It includes Achromobacter. and alcaligenes.• The sloughed solids are picked up by the underdrain system and transported to a clarifier for removal from the wastewater. Psudomonas.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION OF TRICKLING FILTER • Organic loading  A high organic loading rate results in a rapid growth of biomass. .  Excessive growth may result in plugging of pores and subsequent flooding of portions of the medium.

 Warm water heats the air. .  Extreme cold may result in icing and destruction of the biofilms.FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION OF TRICKLING FILTER • Relative temperature of wastewater and ambient air  Cool water absorbs heat from air. causing it to rise through the underdrain and up through the medium. and the cooled air falls towards toward the bottom of the filter in a concurrent fashion with the water.