Introduction to



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Associate Professor, Dept. of International Business Administration.
Chief Operating Officer, School of Continuing Education.
Visiting Scholar, Northwestern University, USA.
Visiting Professor, School of Economics, Jinan University, China.
Adjunct Professor, School of Management, Nanjing Audit University,
Policy Researcher for Science & Technology Policy Research and
Information Center, National Applied Research Laboratories.
Frequent Contributor & Reviewer for SSCI or SCI journals.
Business Consultant in web technology and service industries.

Aaron Yan has been recognized

Contributor for ISI Top 3 Economics Journal & Top 4 Business Journal.
Affiliated Research Scholar Award, National Science Council.
Nominated in the Marquis Who’s Who in the World 2013.
Project Researcher, University of Maryland, USA.
Consultant for project management professionals, City & Guilds, UK.
Director, Dept. of Foreign Affairs, Neter Web Technology Ltd.


(Project-Based Production
(Project-Based Organizational



organizations and describe how they interrelate Identify similarities and differences between production and service operations Describe the operations function and the nature of the operations manager’s job Summarize the two major aspects of process management Explain the key aspects of operations management decision making Instructor Slides 1-5 . Identify the three major functional areas of 3. You should be able to: 1. 6. Define the term operations management 2. 5. 4.

What is operations?  The part of a business organization that is responsible for producing goods or services How can we define operations management?  The management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services Instructor Slides 1-6 .

Goods are physical items that include raw materials. form or psychological value. parts. •Air travel •Education •Haircut •Legal counsel Instructor Slides 1-7 . subassemblies. •Automobile •Computer •Oven •Shampoo Services are activities that provide some combination of time. and final products. location.

Supply Chain – a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service Suppliers’ suppliers Instructor Slides Direct suppliers Producer Distributor Final Customers 1-8 .

Instructor Slides 1-9 .

and selling and promoting the organization’s goods or services. analyzing investment proposals.  Marketing is responsible for assessing consumer wants and needs. Instructor Slides 1-10 . as well as budgeting.  Operations is responsible for producing the goods or providing the services offered by the organization.Organization Marketing Operations Finance  Finance is responsible for securing financial resources at favorable prices and allocating those resources throughout the organization. and providing funds for operations.

Value-Added Inputs •Land •Labor •Capital •Information Measurement and Feedback Transformation/ Conversion Process Outputs •Goods •Services Measurement and Feedback Measurement and Feedback Control Feedback = measurements taken at various points in the transformation process Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed. Instructor Slides 1-11 .

Retail Sales Automobile Assembly.or purely goodsbased. Steelmaking Instructor Slides 1-12 . Teaching Songwriting. Restaurant Meal Home Remodeling. Goods Services Surgery. Software Development Computer Repair.Products are typically neither purely service.

Good s Tangible Instructor Slides Services Act-Oriented 1-13 .Manufacturing and Service Organizations differ chiefly because manufacturing is goods-oriented and service is act-oriented.

employee and customer attitudes) Instructor Slides 1-14 .1.g. Input variability tends to be higher in many service environments than in manufacturing 7. Employee turnover is high in services.. Services are adding many new workers in low-skill. Customer contact is generally much higher in services compared to manufacturing 3. worker skill levels are low compared to those of manufacturing employees 4. Jobs in services are often less structured than in manufacturing 2. In many services. Service performance can be adversely affected by many factors outside of the manager’s control (e. entry-level positions 5. especially in low-skill jobs 6.

one or more actions that transform inputs into outputs Instructor Slides 1-15 .Process .

Operations & Supply Chains Instructor Slides Sales & Marketing 1-16 .

delays and shortages. and inefficient work systems. poor quality. Instructor Slides 1-17 .Variations can be disruptive to operations and supply chain processes. They may result in additional costs.

Instructor Slides 1-18 . . . The operations function includes many interrelated activities such as:  Forecasting  Capacity planning  Facilities and layout  Scheduling  Managing inventories  Assuring quality  Motivating employees  Deciding where to locate facilities  And more .The scope of operations management ranges across the organization.

The Operations Function consists of all activities directly related to producing goods or providing services. A primary function of the operations manager is to guide the system by decision making.  System Design Decisions  System Operation Decisions Instructor Slides 1-19 .

• System Design – Capacity – Facility location – Facility layout – Product and service planning – Acquisition and placement of equipment • These are typically strategic decisions that • usually require long-term commitment of resources • determine parameters of system operation Instructor Slides 1-20 .

• System Operation • These are generally tactical and operational decisions – Management of personnel – Inventory management and control – Scheduling – Project management – Quality assurance • Operations managers spend more time on system operation decision than any other decision area • They still have a vital stake in system design Instructor Slides 1-21 .

Instructor Slides 1-22 .

 Every aspect of business affects or is affected by operations  Many service jobs are closely related to operations  Financial services  Marketing services  Accounting services  Information services  There is a significant amount of interaction and collaboration amongst the functional areas  It provides an excellent vehicle for understanding the world in which we live Instructor Slides 1-23 .

and in what amounts?  When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered?  Where: Where will the work be done?  How: How will he product or service be designed? How will the work be done? How will resources be allocated?  Who: Who will do the work? Instructor Slides 1-24 . Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can have quite different impacts on costs or profits  Typical operations decisions include:  What: What resources are needed.

an abstraction of reality. a simplification of something.  Common features of models:  They are simplifications of real-life phenomena  They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important aspects of the real-life system Instructor Slides 1-25 .Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers  Model .

Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem 6. Models are generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real system 2. Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions 5. Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem. Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information 3. Instructor Slides 1-26 .1. Increase understanding of the problem 4.

A decision making approach that frequently seeks to obtain a mathematically optimal solution  Linear programming  Queuing techniques  Inventory models  Project models  Forecasting techniques  Statistical models Instructor Slides 1-27 .

 System .a set of interrelated parts that must work together  The business organization is a system composed of subsystems  marketing subsystem  operations subsystem  finance subsystem  The systems approach  Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems  Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts  The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those of any one subsystem Instructor Slides 1-28 .

Industrial Revolution Scientific Management Human Relations Movement Decision Models and Management Science Influence of Japanese Manufacturers Instructor Slides 1-29 .

1780s  Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts . 1776  Application of the “rotative” steam engine.Adam Smith.System in which highly skilled workers use simple. Pre-Industrial Revolution  Craft production .Eli Whitney. flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods  Some key elements of the industrial revolution  Began in England in the 1770s  Division of labor . 1792  Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably during this period Instructor Slides 1-30 .

and economic incentives  Management is responsible for planning. achieving cooperate between management and workers. measurement. Frederick Winslow Taylor  Believed in a “science of management” based on observation. Movement was led by efficiency engineer. carefully selecting and training workers. finding the best way to perform each job. analysis and improvement of work methods. and separating management activities from work activities  Emphasis was on maximizing output Instructor Slides 1-31 .

applied Taylor’s ideas to organization structure  Henry Ford .employed scientific management techniques to his factories  Moving assembly line  Mass production Instructor Slides 1-32 .father of motion studies  Henry Gantt .developed the Gantt chart scheduling system and recognized the value of non-monetary rewards for motivating employees  Harrington Emerson . Frank Gilbreth .

1940s. 1981 Instructor Slides 1-33 . 1954  Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory. hierarchy of needs. 1930  Abraham Maslow – motivation theory.The human relations movement emphasized the importance of the human element in job design  Lillian Gilbreth  Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation. 1959  Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y. 1960s  William Ouchi – Theory Z.

1930s  Tippett – statistical sampling theory.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management. F. 1915  Dodge. Romig. 1947 Instructor Slides 1-34 . and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and quality control. 1935  Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare  George Dantzig – linear programming.

 Refined and developed management practices that increased productivity  Credited with fueling the “quality revolution  Just-in-Time production Instructor Slides 1-35 .

Economic conditions Innovating Quality problems Risk management Competing in a global economy Instructor Slides 1-36 .

Sustainability  Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that support human existence Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional environmental and economic measures to include measures that incorporate social criteria in decision making All areas of business will be affected  Product and service design  Consumer education programs  Disaster preparation and response  Supply chain waste management  Outsourcing decisions Instructor Slides 1-37 .

Ethical issues arise in many aspects of operations management:  Financial statements  Worker safety  Product safety  Quality  The environment  The community  Hiring and firing workers  Closing facilities  Workers rights Instructor Slides 1-38 .

In the past. organizations did little to manage the supply chain beyond their own operations and immediate suppliers which led to numerous problems:  Oscillating inventory levels  Inventory stockouts  Late deliveries  Quality problems Instructor Slides 1-39 .

Competitive pressures 5. Increasing importance of e-business 7. Increasing levels of outsourcing 3. The need to manage inventories Instructor Slides 1-40 . Increasing transportation costs 4. The complexity of supply chains 8.1. Increasing globalization 6. The need to improve operations 2.

and time to market  Capacity planning – matching supply and demand  Processing – controlling quality. Customers – what products/services do customers want  Forecasting – predicting timing and volume of customer demand  Design – incorporating customer wants. manufacturability. on-time delivery. supporting the needs of operations on purchased goods and services  Suppliers – monitoring supplier quality. scheduling work  Inventory – meeting demand requirements while managing costs  Purchasing – evaluating potential suppliers. and flexibility. maintaining supplier relations  Location – determining the location of facilities  Logistics – deciding how to best move information and materials Instructor Slides 1-41 .