Chapter 10

Tests of Intelligence

Analogy of Computer
Information Processing
• Since the invention and
popularization of computer
technology, cognitive
theories tend to compare
human perception,
thinking, and decisionmaking to input, processing
and output

Society of Mind • It is a classic by Minsky. we can understand how a mind works. the father of artificial intelligence. and vice versa.g. AI is possible. • If we understand how a computer process works (e. LISP). . • It is a highly materialistic view of mind • Intelligence is a society. it is composed of many nonintelligent parts • If this is true.

instead of counting on formal logic. inference. human learning and reasoning is based on the construction and evaluation of mental models that represent our empirical world. and consciousness” by Johnson-Laird is seminal.Johnson-Laird • The book “Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language. • According to Johnson-Laird. .

What is intelligence? • Chicken or egg first • Cognitive psychologist and psychometrics • We know what intelligence is and hence we know how to measure intelligence • We collect data by measuring intelligence and thus we know what intelligence is. .

What is intelligence? • A question for you to contemplate in your entire life • When assessing intelligence. why do we emphasize logical reasoning and cognitive abilities? Should intelligence be something more than that? .

2009). • Highly intelligent or well-educated people tend to be unable to solve practical problems due to lack of common sense or real-world experience. Wagner.” “book smart” or “clever silliness” (Charlton. Williams. “academic intelligence. . 1995) vs.Practical intelligence • Practical intelligence (street smart) (Sternberg. & Horvath.

Practical intelligence • Neisser (1976): academic intelligence tasks are: – Formulated by others – Often of little or no intrinsic interest – Showing all needed information (in the real world usually a problem is not clearly defined and information is incomplete) – Very remote from ordinary experience – Have one correct answer (the real world is not black and white) – One method to obtain the answer .

and flight engineer are held by three persons.Intellectually changeling but impractical • How often do we solve a logical problem like the following? – “In a certain flight crew. C. What position does each of the three persons hold?” • Source: Copi. who married Brown’s sister. Carr. earns more than the pilot. earns the least. copilot.. The copilot. I. though not necessarily in that order. M. who is an only child. Brown. (2011). and Carr. Introduction to logic . Allen. & McMahon.. the positions of pilot. Cohen.

you need this type of intelligence.Test of practical intelligence • Examples of practical IQ test: – What would you do if your car broke down in the wilderness during a blizzard and there is no cell phone signal? – If you are from the east coast. .

” What would you do? – As you finish up your work in the restroom. What would you do? .Test of practical intelligence • Examples of practical IQ test: – You live in an apartment that has no windows on the same side as the front door. you realize that there is no toilet paper and you don’t have a cell phone. At 2:00 am someone knocked on your door and yelled. It’s the FBI. “Open the door.

• Suddenly the man pushed the woman from the platform into the railway track. • What would you do? .Test of practical intelligence • In a train station you saw a man and a woman quarreling.

Problem of hypothetical scenario • When facing the challenge in real life. 2014). people usually do not do what they answer they would do in the hypothetical situation. • This phenomenon is known as the attitudinal fallacy or talk is cheap (Jerolmack & Khan. .

– When the professor is talking to the examinees. he fakes a heart attack. – In the police academy the trainer is talking to his trainees. and then goes away. suddenly the computer crashes and all data are lost.Examples of non-hypothetical (real) test: • Some may go even further to create a scenario-based test: – When the examinees are told to enter data into a computerized system. . shoots at them. suddenly a “gunman” emerges.

• Alternatively. you can create a scenariobased test and see how your classmates respond. It can be about any subject matter.In-class assignment • Write one to two problems that can test practical intelligence. Present your problem(s) to the class and evaluate the answers. • Post your problem(s) to Sakai. .

Buridan's intelligent donkey .

The donkey is unable to choose between the two. there is no compelling reason to favor one over the other. At last it starves to death. Because they are equally good. .Buridan's intelligent donkey • named after the 14th century French philosopher Jean Buridan • The paradox is about how a rational being is unable to make a rational decision: • An intelligent donkey is placed between two identical piles of hay.

They could logically analyze the pros and cons of different options.Damasio's research • Neuroscientist Antonio Damasio studied people who had head injuries and lost emotion. CANNOT function in the real world. • A pure rational being without emotion. but other intellectual abilities are intact. • Their ability to make decisions was impaired. But they cannot make a simple decision such as which restaurant to go for lunch. such as Spock in Star Trek. . and are aware of what should be done.

Emotional Intelligence • Definition of EQ (Bar-On. skills. understand others and relate with them. and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves.” . 2006): “a crosssection of interrelated emotional and social competencies. and cope with daily demands.

0).Scales for EQ • Scale: Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2. .0) • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) • Goleman model: Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI 2.

– Originality – Fluency – Flexibility – Elaboration • Divergent thinking: Think the otherwise – Torrance Test of Creative Thinking .Creativity • Treffinger: There are more than 100 different definitions and assessment approaches.

creative people look dumb and crazy (at last at the beginning) • After you became successful.g. test-retest • By many measures. not after • Tests of creativity do not fare well when evaluated by psychometrics e. • Big question: How can you accurately assess one’s creativity before he/she becomes famous? . people would retrospectively re-interpret your crazy ideas as creative.Creativity: Before.

starry night. . Look out on a summer's day.• Steve Wozniak • Co-founder of Apple • Did many “crazy things” • Pretend to be the operator of Pam Am Starry. Paint your palette blue and grey.

Let alone precisely measure it. But when I see a smart person. Intelligence is hard to define. .My confession • At the end of the day. I cannot define what exactly intelligence is. I can tell.