Fluid Mechanics

EIT Review

Monroe L. Weber-Shirk

School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering

Shear Stress
F

A

 

Tangential force per unit area
du
dy

 N
 m 2 

change in velocity with respect to distance

rate of shear

Manometers for High Pressures
Find the gage pressure in the center
of the sphere. The sphere contains
fluid with 1 and the manometer
contains fluid with 2.
P1 = 0
What do you know? _____
Use statics to find other pressures.
P1 + h12 - h21 =P3
For small h1 use fluid with high density.

1 ?

1
2
h1

3
2

Mercury!

h2

h3w = p2 p1 .Differential Manometers p1 Water p2 h3 orifice h1 h2 Mercury Find the drop in pressure between point 1 and point 2.p2 = h2(Hg .p2 = (h3-h1)w + h2Hg p1 .h2Hg .w) . p1 + h1w .

Forces on Plane Areas: Inclined Surfaces Free surface O  FR  hc A hc A’ x xc xR centroid B’ center of pressure O y yR yc The origin of the y axis is on the free surface .

Statics  Fundamental Equations  Sum of the forces = 0  Sum of the moments = 0 F  pc A centroid of the area pc is the pressure at the __________________ Ix  y2 A Ix yp   y yA yA Line of action is below the centroid .

Properties of Areas Ixc Ixc a b yc ab yc A = 2 a b d Ixc A =ab R yc a yc = 2 a yc = 3 b +d xc = 3 A =p R 2 yc =R ba 3 I xc = 12 3 I xyc =0 ba 2 = ( b .2d ) 72 ba I xc = 36 I xyc p R4 I xc = 4 I xyc =0 .

Properties of Areas Ixc yc 4R yc = 3p p R4 I xc = 8 I xyc =0 A =p ab yc =a p ba 3 I xc = 4 I xyc =0 p R2 A= 4 4R yc = 3p p R4 I xc = 16 p R2 A= 2 R b a yc Ixc R yc .

Inclined Surface Summary The horizontal center of pressure and the I xy coincide when the surface x p  x  yA horizontal centroid ________ has either a horizontal or vertical axis of symmetry  The center of pressure is always _______ below the y  I x  y p yA centroid  The vertical distance between the centroid and the center of pressure _________ decreases as the surface is lowered deeper into the liquid  What do you do if there isn’t a free surface?  .

Example using Moments An elliptical gate covers the end of a pipe 4 m in diameter. what normal force F applied at the bottom of the gate is required to open the gate when water is 8 m deep above the top of the pipe and the pipe is open to the atmosphere on the other side? Neglect the weight of the gate. If the gate is hinged at the top. Solution Scheme  Magnitude of the force applied by the water 8m  Location of the resultant force  Find F using moments about hinge water F hinge 4m .

5 m Fr= ________ 1.54 MN b=2m hinge 4m .Magnitude of the Force Fr  pc A 8m A  ab h = _____ 10 m Depth to the centroid water Fr F h pc = ___ Fr  h ab  N  10 m  π 2.5 m  2 m  Fr   9800 3 m   a = 2.

125 _______ m 8m Slant distance to surface ba 3 Ix  4 Fr F 4m A  ab  2.5 m  2 x x p  __ water hinge a = 2.5 m  yp  y  412.Location of Resultant Force Ix yp  y yA yh 12.5 m cp b=2m .5 m y  ________ ba 3 yp  y  4 yab 2 a yp  y  4y y p  y  0.

625 m  F 6  5 m F = ______ 809 kN hinge b=2m ltot .Frlcp Fr lcp F ltot water lcp=2.5 m cp  1.54 x 10 N   2.625 m 4m 2.Force Required to Open Gate How do we find the required force? 8m Fr F Moments about the hinge  M hinge  0 =Fltot .

FV = W1 + W2 3m = (3 m)(2 m)(1 m) + p/4(2 m)2(1 m) water = 58.8 kN = 89.9 kN + 30.Example: Forces on Curved Surfaces Find the resultant force (magnitude and location) on a 1 m wide section of the circular arc.5 kN y .7 kN 2m W1 2m W2 FH = p A x = (4 m)(2 m)(1 m) = 78.

948 m (measured from A) with magnitude of 89. 4(2 m) xFV  (1 m) W1  W2 3 4( 2 m ) (1 m) 58.9 kN    30. Take moments about a vertical axis through A.7 kN  A 3m water W1 2m 2m W2 = 0.8 kN  3 x  89.7 kN .Example: Forces on Curved Surfaces The vertical component line of action goes through the centroid of the volume of water above the surface.

667 m 4 yp    4 m   4.Example: Forces on Curved Surfaces The location of the line of action of the horizontal component is given by bh 3 Ix  12 W1 3m b h I x  (1 m)(2 m)3/12 = 0.667 m4 y 4m 0.083 m  4 m    2 m 1 m   water 2m W2 2m x Ix yp  y yA A y .

948 m Example: Forces on Curved Surfaces 78.5 kN horizontal 89.4.083 m 0.2 kN resultant .7 kN vertical 119.

 78.5kN (78.7kN)(0.948m) = ___ 0 .948 m C 1.(89.7kN All pressure forces pass through point C.083m) .  The resultant must pass through point C.Cylindrical Surface Force Check 0.083 m 89.  The pressure force applies no moment about point C.5kN)(1.

23 .  The pressure forces and force F pass through O. Thus the hinge force must pass through O!  All the horizontal force is carried by the hinge  Hinge carries only horizontal W1 + W2 forces! (F = ________) A water 3m W1 O F 2m W2 11.Curved Surface Trick  Find force F required to open the gate.

Dimensionless parameters  Reynolds  Froude  Weber  Mach Number Number Number Number Vl  V F gl R V 2 l W  V c 2Drag  2p Cd   Pressure Coefficient Cp  2 2  V A V  (the dependent variable that we measure experimentally) M .

Mach __________. F. R.geometry a f .W. Froude and _________ Weber numbers must be the same C p  f M. Reynolds _________.Model Studies and Similitude: Scaling Requirements  dynamic similitude  geometric similitude  all linear dimensions must be scaled identically  roughness must scale  kinematic  constant similitude ratio of dynamic pressures at corresponding points  streamlines must be geometrically similar  _______.

V F gl Froude similarity  Froude number the same in model and prototype  difficult to change g ________________________  define length ratio (usually larger than 1)  velocity ratio Vr  L r Lr tr   Lr  time ratio Vr Qr  Vr Ar  L r L r L r  L5r / 2  discharge ratio 3 Lr Fr =M r a r =r r L r 2 =L3r  force ratio tr Fm  Fp Vp2 Vm2  gmLm gpLp 2 Vm2 Vp  Lm Lp Lp Lr  Lm 11.33 .

Control Volume Equations Mass Linear Momentum Moment of Momentum Energy .

Conservation of Mass 2 If mass in cv  cs v  dA   t cv d is constant 1  v 1 cs11 1  dA1   2 v 2  dA 2  0 cs22 A1 v1 Area vector is normal to surface and pointed out of cv  1V1 A1   2V2 A2  0 1V1 A1   2V2 A2  m  V1 A1  V2 A2  Q V = spatial average of v [M/t] If density is constant [L3/t] .

Conservation of Momentum F  M 1  M2 M1   ( r 1V1 A1 ) V1   ( r Q ) V1 a f af QfV  a QfV  F  a V V f  F  Qa M 2  2V2 A2 V2  Q V2 1 2 2 1 F  W  F p11  Fp  Fss 2 2 .

Energy Equation V12 p2 V22  z1  1  Hp   z2   2  H t  hl 1 2g 2 2g p1 2 V hl  K 2g laminar 64 f R hf  f LV2 D 2g turbulent Moody Diagram .

Example HGL and EGL velocity head V2  2g pressure head p  energy grade line hydraulic grade line pump z=0 2 in z elevation datum 2 2 pin V pout Vout +zin +a in +hP = +zout +a out +hT +hL g 2g g 2g .

51   2 log   f Re f  3. 1930)  Rough pipe law (von Karman. Rough LV h  f Turbulent Flow D 2g 2 f Hydraulically smooth pipe law (von Karman. 1930)  Transition function for both smooth and rough pipe laws (Colebrook)  Re f  2 log  2.7 D    2 log   f   1   D 2.Smooth. Transition.7 1     (used to draw the Moody diagram) .51 f  1      3.

05 0.01 1E+03 smooth 1E+04 1E+05 R 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08  D .10 0.008 0.08 friction factor D f   C p  l  0.05 0.0008 0.03 0.02 0.002 0.06  0.03 laminar 0.006 0.01 0.00005 0.02 0.04 0.0001 0.Moody Diagram 0.04 0.0004 0.015 0.004 0.001 0.0002 0.

22 D logG  gh J L 3.Solution Techniques find head loss given (D. 74  g D D log  0. type of pipe.4 f .L. L.2 0.66M  G J  Q G J P Hgh KP M N Hgh K Q f 5/ 2 2/3 f  1.75 9 .7 D G J D H L K find pipe size given (head. D. 9 3. type of pipe) L F M NH IO KP Q F I gh G  178 .7 D Re find flow rate given (head.25 8 LQ 4Q f  2 hf  f 2 Re  5  5 .04 4 . type of pipe.  J Q  2. Q) L F F LQ I L I O D  0. Q) 2 0.25 2 f 5.

Power and Efficiencies  Electrical power Pelectric  IE  Shaft power Pshaft   Impeller bearing losses T power Pimpeller  T  Fluid Motor losses power Pwater  QHp pump losses .

.Manning Formula 1 1/2 V  R 2/3 S h o n The Manning n is a function of the boundary roughness as well as other geometric parameters in some unknown way.. Hydraulic radius for wide channels A Rh  P A  bh P  b  2h bh Rh  b  2h .

1 24 CD = Re 1 10 102 103 104 Reynolds Number 105 106 Fd  Cd A 107 U 2 2 .Drag Coefficient on a Sphere Drag Coefficient 1000 100 Stokes Law 10 1 0.1 0.