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Principles of Life

Chapter 1 Principles of Life

Key Concepts
• 1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of
Structure, Function, and Energy Flow
• 1.2 Genetic Systems Control the Flow, Exchange,
Storage, and Use of Information
• 1.3 Organisms Interact with and Affect Their
Environments
• 1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life
• 1.5 Science Is Based on Quantifiable Observations and
Experiments

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow
Life arose from nonlife.

Chemical evolution led to the appearance of life about 3.8
billion years ago.

Random inorganic chemical interactions eventually
produced molecules that had the property of acting as
templates to form similar molecules.

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow

Miller-Urey Experiment

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow
Around 3.8 billion years
ago certain molecules
became enclosed in
compartments, or cells.
Cells capture energy and
replicate themselves,
two fundamental
characteristics of life.
For 2 billion
years, all
organisms were
unicellular
(prokaryotes),
largely confined
to the oceans.

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow

About 2.5 billion years ago some prokaryotes acquired
the ability to photosynthesize.
The energy of sunlight was captured, and oxygen was
generated as a waste product.
Oxygen increased in concentration in the atmosphere,
making aerobic metabolism possible.

O2

E

O2

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow

O2

E

CHO

Photosynthesis

Respiration

O2
CO2 + H2O

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow
Some prokaryotic
cells became large
enough to attach,
engulf, and digest
smaller cells.
About 1.5 billion
years ago, some
cells had surviving
smaller cells within
them: These were
early eukaryotic
cells.

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow
Two developments made the evolution of multicellular
organisms possible:
 The ability of a cell to change its structure and function
to meet the challenges of a changing environment.
 The ability of cells to stick together after they have
divided and to act in a coordinated manner.

Once organisms became multicellular, it became possible
for certain cells to specialize.

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow
Another effect of oxygen was O3 (ozone)
accumulation in the upper atmosphere.

Ozone has the property of preventing excess
ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching
Earth.

Around 800 million years ago, ozone
accumulation shielded the landmass from
radiation enough to allow the movement of
organisms to land.

1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure,
Function, and Energy Flow

1.2 How Is All Life on Earth Related?

All organisms on Earth today descended from an
original unicellular organism that lived around
3.8 billion years ago.
Major evolutionary events have led to more
complex organisms with larger quantities of
information and more complex mechanisms for
using it.
Genetically independent groups, called species,
have evolved.

1.2 Genetic Systems Control the Flow, Exchange,
Storage, and Use of Information

1.2 Genetic Systems Control the Flow, Exchange, Storage, and
Use of Information

Mutations alter nucleotide sequences of a gene,
and the protein is often altered as well.
Mutations may occur during replication, or be
caused by chemicals and radiation.
Most are harmful or have no effect, but some
may improve the functioning of the organism.
Mutations are the raw material of evolution.

1.3 Organisms Interact with and Affect Their Environments

Biological systems are organized in a hierarchy.
Working in pairs or small groups discuss the
levels of organization within an animal’s body,
starting at the level of cells. Develop one
example of this internal hierarchy.
Then move to the external hierarchy and discuss
these levels, starting at the level of an
individual animal. Develop one examples of this
external hierarchy.

Levels of Organization of Life
Biology can be
visualized as a
hierarchy of units that
include molecules,
cells, tissues, organs,
organisms,
populations,
communities, and the
biosphere.
To understand
organisms, biologists
must study them at
all levels of
organization, from
low to high.

1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life

Evolution is a change in genetic makeup of
biological populations through time—a major
unifying principle of biology.
Charles Darwin proposed that all living
organisms are descended from a common
ancestor by the mechanism of natural
selection.

1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life

Natural selection leads to adaptations—
structural, physiological, or behavioral traits
that enhance an organism’s chances of survival
and reproduction

The Evolutionary Tree of Life

1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life

In science, a theory is a body of scientific work
in which rigorously tested and well-established
facts and principles are used to make
predictions about the natural world.
Evolutionary theory is:
(1) a body of knowledge supported by facts
(2) the resulting understanding of mechanisms
by which populations have changed and
diversified over time, and continue to evolve

Figure 1.8 Scientific Methodology

1.5 Science Is Based on Quantifiable Observations and
Experiments

Inductive logic leads to tentative explanations
called hypotheses.
Deductive logic is used to make predictions.
Experiments are designed to test these
predictions.

1.5 Science Is Based on Quantifiable Observations and
Experiments

Termite Trails