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CHAPTER 1: ELASTICITY

LEARNING OBJECTIVE

The objective of this chapter is to impart students with:

1. The concept of stress and strain.

2. The theory involved in elasticity including Hookes law, Young-,

Shear- , and bulk-modulus.

LEARNING OUTCOME

Students should be able to:

1. Define elasticity and elastic deformation.

2. Draw the stress vs. strain graph

3. identify and explain the degree of elasticity of matter from the

stress-strain graph

4. explain and calculate the tensile, shear and bulk stress and strain

and the related modulus.

OUTLINE

1.1

1.2

Stress-Strain Diagram

1.3

Hookes Law

1.4

Youngs Modulus

1.5

Shear Modulus

1.6

Bulk Modulus

1.7

Poissons Ratio

Stress

- The force F per unit cross-sectional area, A.

- The SI unit: Nm-2 or Pascal (Pa).

Types of

Stress

Tensile stress - stress that tends to stretch or

lengthen the material - acts normal to the

stressed area

Compressive stress - stress that tends to

compress or shorten the material - acts normal

to the stressed area

Shearing stress - stress that tends to shear the

material - acts in plane to the stressed area at

right-angles to compressive or tensile stress

Strain

- The elongation/extension L per unit original length Lo when there is a

distorting force applied on it.

Types of strain:

1) Tensile strain

2) Compressive strain =

Deformation: when an external force is applied onto an object, it will

change in shape or size. This process is known as deformation.

Eg. spring, rubber

Elasticity: If the body returns to original shape or size when the

external force is removed, then it is said to be elastic.

So, elasticity is the ability of an object to regain its shape after

being distorted.

Eg. Rubber can regain its shape if the force that used to compress it is

removed.

EXAMPLE

1:

A load of 5.0 kg hangs from a vertical copper wire of length 2.50 m and cross-sectional

area 1.0 mm2. The extension of the wire is 2.80 mm. Calculate:

a) The stress, and

b) The strain of the copper wire

Solution:

a) Stress, =

= =

= 4.91x107 Nm-2

b) Strain, =

=

= 1.12x10-3

EXAMPLE

2:

An 80 kg lamp is supported by a single electrical copper cable of

diameter d = 3.15 mm. What is the stress carried by the cable?

Solution:

shape of the

stress-strain

diagram and

the values of

Fy and Fu

depend on the

material being

tested.

To measure the

mechanical

properties of any

material

becoming permanently deformed.

3. Ultimate Tensile Strength the capacity of a material or structure to

withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive

strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

4. Fracture / Breaking Point beyond this point, the member will split

into two / many pieces.

The first zone is called elastic zone. Within this zone, if the load is

released, the member goes back to its original length. It is also said that the

specimen has elastic behavior.

When the specimen is stretched beyond the elastic limit, it yields. This means

that at its mid-length it becomes fluid or plastic, and it enters the plastic

zone. The stress at which steel yields is called the "yield stress". Within the

plastic zone large changes in length are obtained by only small increases in

the strain. If the sample is released, it will not go back to its original length

and it will sustain a permanent deformation.

zone, where the largest strength (or stress) called ultimate tension tensile

stress (Fu) is reached.

Beyond this point the resistance reduces until the specimen is split into two

pieces (fracture).

Hooke's law first stated formally by Robert Hooke in The True Theory of Elasticity

or Springiness (1676).

ut tensio, sic vis which can be translated literally into As extension, so force or

translated formally into extension is directly proportional to force (F e)

F=ke

(k=force constant)

Hooke's law below the elastic limit, the restoring force is directly proportional to

the extension.

Can be generalized to Stress is proportional to strain, where strain refers to a

change in some spatial dimension (length, angle, or volume) compared to its original

value and stress refers to the cause of the change (a force applied to a surface).

The coefficient that relates a particular type of stress to the strain that results is

called an elastic modulus (plural, moduli).

EXAMPLE

3:

A wire of diameter 0.91 mm and length 1.50 m is used to support a load of

40 N. If the force constant, k of the wire is 5.68x104 Nm-1, what is the stress

and strain of the wire?

Solution:

To find the extension of the wire, F = ke

40 = (5.68x104)e

e = 7.042x10-4 m

Strain of the wire = e/L

@ L/L

= 7.042x10-4 / 1.50 = 0.469 mm

Stress = F/A

==> area = r = 6.50x10-7 m

= 6.15x107 Nm-2

Youngs modulus (elastic modulus) Y of a material - the ratio of

longitudinal stress the forces applied normal to opposite faces.

Y =

SI unit - Nm-2 or Pascal (Pa)

E

Y = gradient

EXAMPLE

5:

A cylindrical brass rod with Youngs modulus 9.7x1010 Pa and original diameter 10.0 mm

experiences elastic deformation when a tensile load of 200 N is applied.

a) Compute the stress that produces the deformation.

b) If the original length of the rod is 0.25 m, calculate the change in the length of the rod.

Solution:

a) Stress =

= 2.5x106 Nm-2

b) Youngs modulus Y =

=

= 6.6x10-6 m

=

=

EXAMPLE

6:

A type of glass has Y of 5x1010 Pa. It breaks when the strain is 4x10-4. A sample of this glass of

thickness d is bent into the shape of an arc of a circle as shown. This causes the glass along

the outer curve to stretch and along the inner curve to compress.

Assuming that the length of arc CC along the centre of the glass remains unchanged, find the

strain at the outer arc AA in terms of radius of curvature r of arc CC, and the thickness d

of the glass.

Hence, deduce the minimum radius of curvature for a piece of glass with the thickness 6

mm that can be bent before breaking.

Solution:

Let

the angle COC = (in radian)

Length of arc CC, s = r

Length of arc AA, s = (r + )

Since (r + ) is the radius of arc AA, then the extension = s s

= (r + ) r =

strain =

=

Breaking strain = 4x10-4 (for d = 6 mm)

= 4x10-4

Hence, r = 7.5 m

QUIZ

A steel rod 2.0 m long has a cross sectional area of 0.30cm 2. The rod is now hung by one end from

a support structure, and a 550 kg milling machine is hung from the rods lower end. Determine the

stress, the strain, and elongation of the rod.

[Ysteel] = 20 x 1010 Pa

(5 marks)

F (550kg)(9.8m / s 2 )

8

Stress

1

.

8

10

Pa

5

2

A

(3.0 10 m )

L Stress 1.8 108 Pa

4

Strain

9

.

0

10

L

E

20 1010 Pa

A

force applied tangentially (or transversely or laterally) to the face of an object

is called a shear stress, S=F/A

The deformation that results is called shear strain, S=x/y

The coefficient that relates shear stress to shear strain is called

the shear modulus, S (rigidity modulus)

S=

No change in volume

EXAMPLE

7:

1 cm

4 cm when no force is applied to it. When a tangential

force of magnitude 0.49 N is applied to the upper

surface of the block, the surface is displaced 1 mm

relative to the fixed lower surface as shown in figure.

Compute;

i) The shearing stress,

ii) The shearing strain, and

iii) The shear modulus of the jelly

4 cm

12 cm

Solution:

i)

Stress, = F / A

= = 34.0 Nm-2

iii) Shear Modulus, S = / = 136 Nm-2

EXAMPLE

8:

forces as a result of an earthquake. The frame is 0.8 m x 0.8 m large

and 0.5 cm thick. How large a force must have been exerted on each

of its edges if the displacement is 0.16 mm? (Sbrass = 3.5 x 1010 Pa)

Solution:

0.8 m

0.8 m

0.5 x 10-2m

F

A (0.8)(0.5 102 )

4 103 m 2

x 0.16 103 m

L 0.8m

F L

A x

F

0.8

4 103 0.16 103

F 2.8 104 N

3.5 1010

A force applied uniformly over the surface of an object will

compress it uniformly.

This changes the volume of the object without changing

its shape.

The stress in this case is simply described as a pressure

(P=F/A)

The resulting volume strain is measured by the fractional

change in volume (V/V0)

The coefficient that relates stress to strain under uniform

compression is known as the bulk modulus,

B(compression modulus)

B=

EXAMPLE

9:

A hydraulic press contains 0.3 m3 of oil. Find the decrease in

the volume of the oil when subjected to a pressure increase of

P = 2 x107 Pa. (Boil = 5 x 109 Pa)

Solution:

PV

B

V

7

(2

10

)(0.3)

9

5 10

V

V 1.2 10 3 m3

EXAMPLE

10:

In a material testing experiment, a copper specimen is subjected to a change

in pressure of 345 MPa. The volume of the specimen is found to decrease by

0.25%. Determine the bulk modulus of copper.

Solution:

Volume strain, = -0.25%

Bulk modulus, B = -

exam 2010/2011 Q3 (a)

Solution:

B=V = - (V)

(100 ml)

V = - 0.0714 ml

(a)

Answer:

Bwater = Bblood = 2.3x109 Pa,

B (atm.) = 2.3x109 Pa x = 2.09x104 atm.

Compressibility, k = = = 4.78x10-5 atm.-1

b) The pressure increase by 1.0x104 Pa per meter (1.0x104 Pa/m)

Changes in volume of each cm3???

B = - V = =-

= - 1.43x10-4 cm3

c)

=- === - 6.14x10-4

= - 6.14x10-4

V = - 3.2x10-4 m3

Absolute pressure

(chapter 2)

Poisson's ratio is - the ratio of the relative contraction strain

(or transverse strain) normal to the applied load - to the

relative extension strain (or axial strain) in the direction of

the applied load

Poisson's Ratio can be expressed as

= - t / l

where

= Poisson's ratio

t = transverse strain

l = longitudinal or axial strain

A negative sign is needed to show that the changes are

usually of opposite type (+ extension, vs. contraction).

SUMMARY

Elastic

Moduli

properties

of

materials

Modulus

(symbols)

Stress

Strain

Configuration

Change

Young's

(Y)

Normal to

opposite faces

Length

= L/L0

or shorter and fatte

r

Shear

(S)

Tangential to

opposite faces

Tangent

= x/y

Rectangles become

parallelograms

Bulk

(B)

pressure

Volume

= V/V0

Volume changes

but shape does not

Elasticity Moduli

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