# THEORY

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SOMETHING MAJESTIC

SOMETHING SHOCKING

SOMETHING TRANQUILLING

SOMETHING TERRIFYING

Is the blue face on the inside or outside of the box? .

Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane upon which the image created by the LOS is projected.Concept A projection theory is based on 2 variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection (image or picture plane) Line of sight (LOS) is an imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an object. .

Line of sight Lines of sight (also called Projectors) can be parallel or converge. Parallel projection Converge projection .

Projections .

Perspective projection  • Perspective projection is rarely used in manual drawing • Perspective projection is useful for ‘non technical’ communications • The height of the buildings appears to be reducing as we move away from the observer. .

Projections .

• The front or principal surface of an object (the surface toward the plane of projection) is parallel to the plane of projection.Oblique Projections • Projectors are parallel to each other but not perpendicular to projection plane • An oblique projection shows front and top surfaces that include the three dimensions of height. width. • Effective in pictorially representing objects . and depth.

Orthographic Projections • Orthographic projections are drawings where the projectors. the observer or station point remain parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of projection. • Effective in technical representation of objects . • Orthographic projections are further subdivided into axonometric projections and multi-view projections.

Projections .

Multiview & Axonometric Multiview drawing shows a 2D view of an object. Multiv iew Axon ome tr ic . Rotate Tilt Axonometric drawing shows a virtual 3D view of an object.

et al. Fig.2 Orthogonal (multiview) GL2:16 Oblique Perspective . 9.Projection techniques Axonometric Bertoline.

Shape and angle distortion Circular hole becomes ellipse Right angle becomes obtuse angle.View comparison Type Multiview drawing Advantage Disadvantage Accurately presents Require training object’s details. to visualization.e. Perspective drawing Object looks more Difficult to create like what our eyes Size and shape perceive. distortion Distorted width . size and shape. i. Pictorial drawing Easy to visualize.

Definition Multiview drawing is a set of related images that are created by viewing the object from a different direction. Width Depth . Width Depth Depth Height Height Adjacent view(s) is needed to fulfill the object description.

The observer moves around the object.Methods 1. Revolve the object with respect to observer 2. Glass box concept Top view Top view Front view Right side view play Front view Right side view play .

Glass box : Revolution of the planes of projection Rear view Left side view Bottom view .

Choosing Views • Complex objects require three views to describe its shape – Front View – Top View – Right Side View • Simple objects can be described with two views (Ex: Soda Can) ₋ Front View ₋ Top View .

.Notes • Most descriptive view is typically designated as the Front View. ground line or reference line. • Front view also called Elevation is projected to vertical plane • Top view also called Plan is projected to horizontal plane • Right-side view also called Right-End Elevation is projected to profile plane • The line of intersection of HP and VP is called the XY line.

Each wall represents a projection plane (principal or reference plane) onto which a two. . • There is a total of six glass walls surrounding the object.dimensional object view will be created.Summary : Problem solving steps • The best way to understand orthographic projection is to imagine an object contained inside a glass box.

A person standing in front of the object would see only the five corners identified in black.Start by focusing only on the front projection plane. 2 3 1 t ig h le s f ng eo lin 90° a ction at proje to ne pla 4 5 . Projection lines are used to project each corner outward until they reach the projection plane.

The visible edges of the object are then identified on the projection plane by connecting the projected corners with object lines. .

The orthographic projection process is then repeated on the other projection planes. Ensure EVERYTHING is in line and in proper POSITION .

Projections .

SIDE . SIDE FRONT R. SIDE FRONT TOP L.Layout of the 4 Views Third Angle Method TOP L. SIDE First Angle Method R.

Orthographic Projection x1 Plan y x Elevation y1 .

Top View (TV) and Side View (SV) FV is a view projected on VP. TV is a view projected on HP.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFERENCE PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE Different Reference planes are Horizontal Plane (HP). Pattern of planes & Pattern of views Methods of drawing Orthographic Projections 1 2 3 . IMPORTANT TERMS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: Planes. Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ) Side Or Profile Plane ( PP) And Different Views are Front View (FV). SV is a view projected on PP.

PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method) 2 THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL THREE PLANES. A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOUNWARD B) PP. X PP VP Y FV LSV Y X X TV HP HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 90 AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION. 0 ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS DRAWN IN FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS . ARROW DIRECTION IS A NORMAL WAY OF OBSERVING THE OBJECT. BUT IN THIS DIRECTION ONLY VP AND A VIEW ON IT (FV) CAN BE SEEN. Y PROCEDURE TO SOLVE ABOVE PROBLEM:TO MAKE THOSE PLANES ALSO VISIBLE FROM THE ARROW DIRECTION. THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP. THE OTHER PLANES AND VIEWS ON THOSE CAN NOT BE SEEN. 0 PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 90 AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP.

. • The name third angle is derived from the objects position in the third quadrant of the planes of reference.How did they get their names? • The name first angle is derived from the objects position in the first quadrant of the planes of reference.

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How do I know which method is being used? • Each method has its own symbol and they are as follows • First angle projection • Third angle projection .

How do I draw this symbol? • The recommended proportions for the symbol are as follows .

Surface is an area that are bounded by edges or surface limit. .Object features Edge is a line that represent the boundary between two faces of an object. Surface limit is a line that represents the last visible part of the curve surface. Surface can be plane or curve. No edges! Prism Cylinder Sphere Note These features will appear as lines in a multiview drawing.

TIPS The slope can become a line .

It can appear as a regular plane figure .

When a sloped surface meets a Horizontal or Vertical surface. . Where the two surfaces meet a line appears.

A line can represent a limiting element. .

.A curved surface can appear as a circle or portion of a circle.

A curved surface may also appear as a regular plane figure .

When a curved surface meets a surface that is Tangential to it. no line appears. If the surface is not Tangential to the curve then a line appears .

Projection of a curve surface Glass box concept Multiview drawing Play .

What else to they have in common? .A Question… Each of the blocks to the right have the same overall dimensions and colors.

They all have identical top views! .Answer ….

Is that it? • Sometimes features of an object are hidden (for example they are at the back of the object) • To show these features we add dashed lines in their place. .