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# YONSEI UNIVERSITY

Mechanical Engineering
Intelligent Structure & Integrated Design Laboratory

## Mechanical Behavior of Materials

Chapter 09. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and Stress-Based Approach

## Prof. Heoung-Jae Chun

School of Mechanical Engineering
Yonsei Univ.

9. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and Stress-Based Approach

Objectives
(i) Explore the cyclic fatigue behavior of materials
(ii) Review laboratory testing in fatigue
(iii) Applied engineering methods to estimate fatigue life

9.1 Introduction
Fatigue:
Cyclic stress
(well below ultimate
stress)

Failure

Microphysical
damage

Cracks or other
microscopic damage

9.1 Introduction
3 approaches for failure:
(i) Stress-based approach: Based on nominal(average) stress in
the affected region of engineering
components
(ii) Strain-based approach: More detailed analysis of localized
yielding that may occur at stress
(iii) Fracture mechanics approach: Treats growing cracks by the
methods of fracture mechanics

9.1 Introduction

## Large horizontal-axis wind turbine in operation on the Hawaiian

island of Oahu. The blade has a tip-to-tip span of 98 m.

9.2.1

## Constant amplitude stressing

(i) Stress range;
(ii) Mean stress;
(iii) Stress amplitude;

Alternating stress
(i)
(ii)
(iii) Stress ratio:

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

(iv) Amplitude ratio;

(v) Relationships;

(vi) Specification
(a)
(b)

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Completely reverse cycling;

Zero-to-tension cycling;

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Nonzero mean stress;

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.2
Point Stress versus Nominal Stress

Unnotched

## where : stress at a point, : nominal stress

Notched
where : elastic stress concentration factor

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Actual and nominal stresses for (a) simple tension, (b) bending, and (c) a
notched member. Actual stress distributions vs. are shown as solid
lines, and hypothetical distributions associated with nominal stresses S
as dashed lines. In (c), the stress distribution that would occur if there
were no yielding is shown as a dotted line

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.3 Stress Versus Life (S-N) Curves

## Stress versus life (S-N) curves from rotating bending tests of

unnotched specimens of an aluminum alloy. Identical linear
stress scales are used, but the cycle numbers are plotted on a
linear scale in (a), and on a logarithmic one in (b)

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

(log-linear plot)
(log-log plot)

## Rotating bending S-N curve

for unnotched specimens of
a steel with a distinct fatigue
limit

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Constants
for stress-life curves for various ductile engineering
metals, from tests at zero mean stress on unnotched axial
specimens ()

## Fatigue limits (endurance limits):

A distinct stress level below which fatigue failure does not
occur (plain carbon and low carbon alloy steel)

Fatigue strength:
A specific stress amplitude value from S-N curve at a
particular life of interest
High cycle fatigue:
Low stress & yielding are not dominated
Low cycle fatigue:
High stress & yielding are dominated (strain based
approach)

Example
1

## Some values of stress amplitude and corresponding cycles to

failure are given in Table E9.1 from tests on the AISI 4340 steel of
Table 9.1. The tests were done on unnotched, axially loaded
specimens under zero mean stress.
(a) Plot these data on log-log coordinates. If this trend seems to
represent a straight line, obtain rough values for the
constants for A and B of Eq. 9.6 from two widely separated
points on a ilne drawn through the data.
(b) Obtain refined values for A and B, using a linear least-squares
fit of versus

Fig. E9.1

Sol)

## (a) Graphical approach

AISI 4340 steel:
point 1: (948, 222)
point 2: (524, 132150)

Sol)

## (b) Least square fit

For least square fit

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.4
Safety factors for S-N Curves

## 9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Example
2

For the AISI 4340 steel of Table 9.1, a stress amplitude of will be
applied in service for What are the safety factors in stress and in
life?

Sol)

Sol)

or

## Irregular load versus time histories (more common case)

(ii) Working loads: Change with time as result of function
performed (fatigue failure)
(iii) Vibratory loads: Secondary function of performance
(fatigue failure)
(iv) Accidental loads: Do not occur under normal
circumstances

Example 3

## Working load: Weight of vehicle moving

bounding of cars after hitting pothole or wind
turbulence

earthquake

## Sample record of stresses at the steering knuckle arm of a

motor vehicle, including the original stress-time history (a), and
roughness (b) and the working load due to maneuvering the
vehicle (c).

## Calculated force on the front left lower ball joint in an

automobile suspension, recorded while the tires were impacting

## Loads during each revolution of a helicopter rotor. Feathering of

the blade and interaction with the air cause these dynamic

## Loads for one flight of a fixed-wing aircraft (a), and a simplified

and landings, and there are vibratory loads due to runway
roughness and air turbulence, as well as wind gust loads in
storms.

no shear)

## Reciprocating bending (constant bending stress tapered

and flat specimen)

## Rotating cantilever beam fatigue testing machine used by

Wohler. D, drive pulley; C, arbor; T, tapered specimen butt; S,

## A reciprocating cantilever bending fatigue testing machine

based on controlled deflections from a rotating eccentric.

## Axial fatigue testing machine based on a resonant vibration caused by a

rotating eccentric mass.

## 9.4 Fatigue Testing

9.4.2 Test Specimen

Notched specimen

## Small size scale: Anisotropic & inhomogeneous

- Inhomogeneities: Grain structure, tiny voids, particles of
different chemical composition

Damage intensification
- Ductile: Crystal grains slip bands (intense deformation
due to shear motion between crystal planes)
cracks within grains joining with other similar
cracks propagates to failure

## 9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

developing into a crack in an annealed 70Cu-30Zn brass.

## Propagation of a few defects

- Limited ductility: Small cracks develop (high strength
metals) at void, inclusion, slip band, grain
boundary, scratch, sharp flaw crack
growth
to normal to tensile stress
joining other
cracks failure
- Composite materials: Fiber breakage & delamination
fiber pull-out & separated layer (final
failure)

## Beach mark: Curved lines concentric about crack origin &

present and mark the propagation of crack at
various stages
- Change of texture of fracture surface: Delayed or
accelerated crack propagation, altered stress level,
temperature chemical environment
- Shear slip: Final fracture surface in lined 45 to applied
stress (rough in texture)
- Striations: Presence of mark left by progress of crack on
each cycle

## 9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Fatigue
crack origin in an unnotched axial test specimen of AISI 4340

steel having 780 MPa, tested at 440 MPa with 0. The inclusion that
started the crack can be seen at the two higher magnifications.

## Stress-life curves for completely reversed bending of smooth

specimens, showing various stages of fatigue damage in an annealed
99% aluminum (1230-0), and in a hardened 6061-T6 aluminum alloy.

## 9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Fatigue failure of an aluminum alloy
airplane propeller. The failure began
at a small gouge on the bottom edge,
approximately 2 cm from the right
end of the scale.

## Fracture surfaces for fatigue and final

brittle fracture in an 18 Mn steel
member.

## Fatigue striations spaced approximately

0.12 apart, from a fracture surface of a
Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel.

## 9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.1 Presentation of Mean Stress Data

## Family of rotating bending S-N curves for various probabilities

of failure, P, from data for small unnotched specimens of 7075T6 aluminum.

## 9.7 Mean Stress

Family of rotating bending S-N
curves for various probabilities of
failure, P, from data for small
unnotched specimens of 7075-T6
aluminum.

## Stress-life curves for axial

steel for constant values of
the stress ratio R.

## 9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.2
Normalized Amplitude-Mean Diagrams

(conservative)
- Fatigue limit;

9.7.3

Gerber parabola

## J. Morrow equation (Modified Goodmans equation)

(Ductile metals)
since for some ductile metals
: True fracture strength

## 9.7 Mean Stress

SWT (Smith, Watson and Topper) equation
)

Walker equation
)
: special fitting constant (more than one Rs)

## 9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.4
Life Estimates with Mean Stress

Since
()
or

*SWT equations
or

Example
4

(a) If ?
(b) vs. for

Sol)

(a) For
For

## 9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

(b)

because
* SWT equation is used

Sol)

curve

## 9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.5
Safety Factor with Mean Stress

since

## 9.7 Mean Stress

Condition
never to reach actual service life

Morrows equation

STW equation
when

Example
5

## Man-Ten steel is subjected in service to a stress amplitude of 180

MPa and a mean stress of 100 MPa for 20,000 cycles.
(a) What are the safety factors in stress and in life?
(b) What load factor corresponds to the 20,000 cycle service
life?

Sol)

(a)

Sol)

(b)
because

## 9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Ductile materials: Fatigue life is controlled by cyclic amplitude
of octahedral shear stress
-

## Combined cyclic pressure and steady bending of a thin-walled

tube with closed ends. The principal directions are constant.

## Combined cyclic pressure and steady torsion of a thin-walled tube with

closed ends. The principal directions oscillate during each cycle.

## 9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Octahedral
shear stress criterion compared with cycle fatigue

Example
6

## An unnotched solid circular shaft of diameter 50 mm is made of

the alloy Ti-6Al-4V of Table 9.1. A zero-to-maximum () cyclic
torque of is applied, together with a zero-to-maximum cyclic
bending moment of , with the two cyclic loads being applied in
phase at the same frequency. How many load cycles can be
applied before fatigue failure is expected?

(R=0)

Sol)

since

## 9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Sol)

9.9.1
The Palmgren-Miner Rule

Use of the Palmgren-Miner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude

Life prediction for a repeating stress history with mean level shifts.

9.9.2 Cycle Counting for Irregular Histories

## An irregular load vs. time

history from a ground vehicle
transmission, and a matrix
giving numbers of rainflow
cycles at various combinations
of range and mean. The range
and
mean
values
are
percentages of the peak load; in
constructing the matrix, these
were rounded to the discrete
values shown.

Homework

Problems
9.3, 9.10, 9.23, 9.29, 9.37, 9.41, 9.45