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YONSEI UNIVERSITY

Mechanical Engineering
Intelligent Structure & Integrated Design Laboratory

Mechanical Behavior of Materials


Chapter 09. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and Stress-Based Approach

Prof. Heoung-Jae Chun


School of Mechanical Engineering
Yonsei Univ.

9. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and Stress-Based Approach

Objectives
(i) Explore the cyclic fatigue behavior of materials
(ii) Review laboratory testing in fatigue
(iii) Applied engineering methods to estimate fatigue life

9.1 Introduction
Fatigue:
Cyclic stress
(well below ultimate
stress)

Failure

Microphysical
damage

Cracks or other
microscopic damage

9.1 Introduction
3 approaches for failure:
(i) Stress-based approach: Based on nominal(average) stress in
the affected region of engineering
components
(ii) Strain-based approach: More detailed analysis of localized
yielding that may occur at stress
raisers during cyclic loading
(iii) Fracture mechanics approach: Treats growing cracks by the
methods of fracture mechanics

9.1 Introduction

Large horizontal-axis wind turbine in operation on the Hawaiian


island of Oahu. The blade has a tip-to-tip span of 98 m.

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.1
Description of Cyclic Loading

Constant amplitude stressing


(i) Stress range;
(ii) Mean stress;
(iii) Stress amplitude;

Alternating stress
(i)
(ii)
(iii) Stress ratio:

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


(iv) Amplitude ratio;

(v) Relationships;

(vi) Specification
(a)
(b)

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Completely reverse cycling;

Zero-to-tension cycling;

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Nonzero mean stress;

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.2
Point Stress versus Nominal Stress

Unnotched

where : stress at a point, : nominal stress

Notched
where : elastic stress concentration factor

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Actual and nominal stresses for (a) simple tension, (b) bending, and (c) a
notched member. Actual stress distributions vs. are shown as solid
lines, and hypothetical distributions associated with nominal stresses S
as dashed lines. In (c), the stress distribution that would occur if there
were no yielding is shown as a dotted line

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


9.2.3 Stress Versus Life (S-N) Curves

Stress versus life (S-N) curves from rotating bending tests of


unnotched specimens of an aluminum alloy. Identical linear
stress scales are used, but the cycle numbers are plotted on a
linear scale in (a), and on a logarithmic one in (b)

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

(log-linear plot)
(log-log plot)

Rotating bending S-N curve


for unnotched specimens of
a steel with a distinct fatigue
limit

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Example of plot based on log-log coordinates.

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Constants
for stress-life curves for various ductile engineering
metals, from tests at zero mean stress on unnotched axial
specimens ()

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Fatigue limits (endurance limits):


A distinct stress level below which fatigue failure does not
occur (plain carbon and low carbon alloy steel)

Fatigue strength:
A specific stress amplitude value from S-N curve at a
particular life of interest
High cycle fatigue:
Low stress & yielding are not dominated
Low cycle fatigue:
High stress & yielding are dominated (strain based
approach)

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Example
1

Some values of stress amplitude and corresponding cycles to


failure are given in Table E9.1 from tests on the AISI 4340 steel of
Table 9.1. The tests were done on unnotched, axially loaded
specimens under zero mean stress.
(a) Plot these data on log-log coordinates. If this trend seems to
represent a straight line, obtain rough values for the
constants for A and B of Eq. 9.6 from two widely separated
points on a ilne drawn through the data.
(b) Obtain refined values for A and B, using a linear least-squares
fit of versus

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Fig. E9.1

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Sol)

(a) Graphical approach


AISI 4340 steel:
point 1: (948, 222)
point 2: (524, 132150)

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Sol)

(b) Least square fit


For least square fit

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2.4
Safety factors for S-N Curves

Safety factor in stress

Safety factor in life

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

Example
2

For the AISI 4340 steel of Table 9.1, a stress amplitude of will be
applied in service for What are the safety factors in stress and in
life?

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Sol)

For AISI 4340 steel (

Safety factor in life

9.2 Definitions and Concepts


Sol)

Safety factor in stress

or

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

Irregular load versus time histories (more common case)


(i) Static loads: Constant
(ii) Working loads: Change with time as result of function
performed (fatigue failure)
(iii) Vibratory loads: Secondary function of performance
(fatigue failure)
(iv) Accidental loads: Do not occur under normal
circumstances

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading


Example 3

Static load: Weight of structure

Working load: Weight of vehicle moving

Vibratory load: Tire interacting with the rough road surface or


bounding of cars after hitting pothole or wind
turbulence

Accidental load: Car hitting a overpass of bridge or


earthquake

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

Sample record of stresses at the steering knuckle arm of a


motor vehicle, including the original stress-time history (a), and
the separation of this into the vibratory load due to roadway
roughness (b) and the working load due to maneuvering the
vehicle (c).

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

Calculated force on the front left lower ball joint in an


automobile suspension, recorded while the tires were impacting
railroad ties.

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

Loads during each revolution of a helicopter rotor. Feathering of


the blade and interaction with the air cause these dynamic
loads.

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

Loads for one flight of a fixed-wing aircraft (a), and a simplified


version of this loading (b). Working loads occur due to takeoffs,
and landings, and there are vibratory loads due to runway
roughness and air turbulence, as well as wind gust loads in
storms.

9.4 Fatigue Testing

Rotating bending test (4 point bending constant bending &


no shear)

Reciprocating bending (constant bending stress tapered


and flat specimen)

Axial fatigue test

Closed-loop servohydraulic testing machine

9.4 Fatigue Testing

Rotating cantilever beam fatigue testing machine used by


Wohler. D, drive pulley; C, arbor; T, tapered specimen butt; S,
specimen; a, moment arm; G, loading bearing; P, loading spring.

9.4 Fatigue Testing

The R. R. Moore rotating beam fatigue testing machine.

9.4 Fatigue Testing

A reciprocating cantilever bending fatigue testing machine


based on controlled deflections from a rotating eccentric.

9.4 Fatigue Testing

Axial fatigue testing machine based on a resonant vibration caused by a


rotating eccentric mass.

9.4 Fatigue Testing


9.4.2 Test Specimen

Unnotched smooth specimens

Notched specimen

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Small size scale: Anisotropic & inhomogeneous


- Inhomogeneities: Grain structure, tiny voids, particles of
different chemical composition

Damage intensification
- Ductile: Crystal grains slip bands (intense deformation
due to shear motion between crystal planes)
cracks within grains joining with other similar
cracks propagates to failure

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

The process of slip band damage during cyclic loading


developing into a crack in an annealed 70Cu-30Zn brass.

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Propagation of a few defects


- Limited ductility: Small cracks develop (high strength
metals) at void, inclusion, slip band, grain
boundary, scratch, sharp flaw crack
growth
to normal to tensile stress
joining other
cracks failure
- Composite materials: Fiber breakage & delamination
fiber pull-out & separated layer (final
failure)

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Beach mark: Curved lines concentric about crack origin &


present and mark the propagation of crack at
various stages
- Change of texture of fracture surface: Delayed or
accelerated crack propagation, altered stress level,
temperature chemical environment
- Shear slip: Final fracture surface in lined 45 to applied
stress (rough in texture)
- Striations: Presence of mark left by progress of crack on
each cycle

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Fatigue
crack origin in an unnotched axial test specimen of AISI 4340

steel having 780 MPa, tested at 440 MPa with 0. The inclusion that
started the crack can be seen at the two higher magnifications.

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

Stress-life curves for completely reversed bending of smooth


specimens, showing various stages of fatigue damage in an annealed
99% aluminum (1230-0), and in a hardened 6061-T6 aluminum alloy.

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage


Fatigue failure of an aluminum alloy
airplane propeller. The failure began
at a small gouge on the bottom edge,
approximately 2 cm from the right
end of the scale.

Fracture surfaces for fatigue and final


brittle fracture in an 18 Mn steel
member.

Fatigue striations spaced approximately


0.12 apart, from a fracture surface of a
Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel.

9.7 Mean Stress


9.7.1 Presentation of Mean Stress Data

Family of rotating bending S-N curves for various probabilities


of failure, P, from data for small unnotched specimens of 7075T6 aluminum.

9.7 Mean Stress


Family of rotating bending S-N
curves for various probabilities of
failure, P, from data for small
unnotched specimens of 7075-T6
aluminum.

Stress-life curves for axial


loading of unnotched A517
steel for constant values of
the stress ratio R.

9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.2
Normalized Amplitude-Mean Diagrams

* Modified Goodman equation


(conservative)
- Fatigue limit;

9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.3
Additional Mean Stress Equations

Gerber parabola

J. Morrow equation (Modified Goodmans equation)


(Ductile metals)
since for some ductile metals
: True fracture strength

9.7 Mean Stress


SWT (Smith, Watson and Topper) equation
)

Walker equation
)
: special fitting constant (more than one Rs)

9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.4
Life Estimates with Mean Stress

: Equivalent completely reversed stress amplitude


Since
()
or

9.7 Mean Stress


*SWT equations
or

9.7 Mean Stress

Example
4

The AISI 4340 steel of Table 9.1 is subjected to cyclic


loading with a tensile mean stress of
(a) If ?
(b) vs. for

9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

(a) For
For

9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

(b)

because
* SWT equation is used

9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

curve

9.7 Mean Stress

9.7.5
Safety Factor with Mean Stress

since

9.7 Mean Stress


Condition
never to reach actual service life

Morrows equation

STW equation
when

9.7 Mean Stress

Example
5

Man-Ten steel is subjected in service to a stress amplitude of 180


MPa and a mean stress of 100 MPa for 20,000 cycles.
(a) What are the safety factors in stress and in life?
(b) What load factor corresponds to the 20,000 cycle service
life?

9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

(a)

9.7 Mean Stress

Sol)

(b)
because

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses


Ductile materials: Fatigue life is controlled by cyclic amplitude
of octahedral shear stress
-

Effective stress amplitude

Equivalent completely reverse uniaxial stress

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Combined cyclic pressure and steady bending of a thin-walled


tube with closed ends. The principal directions are constant.

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Combined cyclic pressure and steady torsion of a thin-walled tube with


closed ends. The principal directions oscillate during each cycle.

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Octahedral
shear stress criterion compared with cycle fatigue
strengths for completely reversed biaxial loading.

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Example
6

An unnotched solid circular shaft of diameter 50 mm is made of


the alloy Ti-6Al-4V of Table 9.1. A zero-to-maximum () cyclic
torque of is applied, together with a zero-to-maximum cyclic
bending moment of , with the two cyclic loads being applied in
phase at the same frequency. How many load cycles can be
applied before fatigue failure is expected?

(R=0)

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Sol)

since

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

Sol)

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading

9.9.1
The Palmgren-Miner Rule

Repeated partial sequence of loading

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading

Use of the Palmgren-Miner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude
loading which is completely reversed.

Life prediction for a repeating stress history with mean level shifts.

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading


9.9.2 Cycle Counting for Irregular Histories

Definitions for irregular loading.

Condition for counting a cycle with the rainflow method.

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading

Example of rainflow cycle counting.

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading

An irregular load vs. time


history from a ground vehicle
transmission, and a matrix
giving numbers of rainflow
cycles at various combinations
of range and mean. The range
and
mean
values
are
percentages of the peak load; in
constructing the matrix, these
were rounded to the discrete
values shown.

Homework

Problems
9.3, 9.10, 9.23, 9.29, 9.37, 9.41, 9.45