YONSEI UNIVERSITY
Mechanical Engineering
Intelligent Structure & Integrated Design Laboratory
Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Chapter 09. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and StressBased Approach
Prof. HeoungJae Chun
School of Mechanical Engineering
Yonsei Univ.
9. Fatigue of Materials:
Introduction and StressBased Approach
Objectives
(i) Explore the cyclic fatigue behavior of materials
(ii) Review laboratory testing in fatigue
(iii) Applied engineering methods to estimate fatigue life
9.1 Introduction
Fatigue:
Cyclic stress
(well below ultimate
stress)
Failure
Microphysical
damage
Cracks or other
microscopic damage
9.1 Introduction
3 approaches for failure:
(i) Stressbased approach: Based on nominal(average) stress in
the affected region of engineering
components
(ii) Strainbased approach: More detailed analysis of localized
yielding that may occur at stress
raisers during cyclic loading
(iii) Fracture mechanics approach: Treats growing cracks by the
methods of fracture mechanics
9.1 Introduction
Large horizontalaxis wind turbine in operation on the Hawaiian
island of Oahu. The blade has a tiptotip span of 98 m.
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
9.2.1
Description of Cyclic Loading
Constant amplitude stressing
(i) Stress range;
(ii) Mean stress;
(iii) Stress amplitude;
Alternating stress
(i)
(ii)
(iii) Stress ratio:
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
(iv) Amplitude ratio;
(v) Relationships;
(vi) Specification
(a)
(b)
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Completely reverse cycling;
Zerototension cycling;
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Nonzero mean stress;
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
9.2.2
Point Stress versus Nominal Stress
Unnotched
where : stress at a point, : nominal stress
Notched
where : elastic stress concentration factor
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Actual and nominal stresses for (a) simple tension, (b) bending, and (c) a
notched member. Actual stress distributions vs. are shown as solid
lines, and hypothetical distributions associated with nominal stresses S
as dashed lines. In (c), the stress distribution that would occur if there
were no yielding is shown as a dotted line
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
9.2.3 Stress Versus Life (SN) Curves
Stress versus life (SN) curves from rotating bending tests of
unnotched specimens of an aluminum alloy. Identical linear
stress scales are used, but the cycle numbers are plotted on a
linear scale in (a), and on a logarithmic one in (b)
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
(loglinear plot)
(loglog plot)
Rotating bending SN curve
for unnotched specimens of
a steel with a distinct fatigue
limit
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Example of plot based on loglog coordinates.
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Constants
for stresslife curves for various ductile engineering
metals, from tests at zero mean stress on unnotched axial
specimens ()
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Fatigue limits (endurance limits):
A distinct stress level below which fatigue failure does not
occur (plain carbon and low carbon alloy steel)
Fatigue strength:
A specific stress amplitude value from SN curve at a
particular life of interest
High cycle fatigue:
Low stress & yielding are not dominated
Low cycle fatigue:
High stress & yielding are dominated (strain based
approach)
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Example
1
Some values of stress amplitude and corresponding cycles to
failure are given in Table E9.1 from tests on the AISI 4340 steel of
Table 9.1. The tests were done on unnotched, axially loaded
specimens under zero mean stress.
(a) Plot these data on loglog coordinates. If this trend seems to
represent a straight line, obtain rough values for the
constants for A and B of Eq. 9.6 from two widely separated
points on a ilne drawn through the data.
(b) Obtain refined values for A and B, using a linear leastsquares
fit of versus
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Fig. E9.1
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Sol)
(a) Graphical approach
AISI 4340 steel:
point 1: (948, 222)
point 2: (524, 132150)
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Sol)
(b) Least square fit
For least square fit
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
9.2.4
Safety factors for SN Curves
Safety factor in stress
Safety factor in life
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Example
2
For the AISI 4340 steel of Table 9.1, a stress amplitude of will be
applied in service for What are the safety factors in stress and in
life?
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Sol)
For AISI 4340 steel (
Safety factor in life
9.2 Definitions and Concepts
Sol)
Safety factor in stress
or
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Irregular load versus time histories (more common case)
(i) Static loads: Constant
(ii) Working loads: Change with time as result of function
performed (fatigue failure)
(iii) Vibratory loads: Secondary function of performance
(fatigue failure)
(iv) Accidental loads: Do not occur under normal
circumstances
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Example 3
Static load: Weight of structure
Working load: Weight of vehicle moving
Vibratory load: Tire interacting with the rough road surface or
bounding of cars after hitting pothole or wind
turbulence
Accidental load: Car hitting a overpass of bridge or
earthquake
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Sample record of stresses at the steering knuckle arm of a
motor vehicle, including the original stresstime history (a), and
the separation of this into the vibratory load due to roadway
roughness (b) and the working load due to maneuvering the
vehicle (c).
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Calculated force on the front left lower ball joint in an
automobile suspension, recorded while the tires were impacting
railroad ties.
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Loads during each revolution of a helicopter rotor. Feathering of
the blade and interaction with the air cause these dynamic
loads.
9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading
Loads for one flight of a fixedwing aircraft (a), and a simplified
version of this loading (b). Working loads occur due to takeoffs,
and landings, and there are vibratory loads due to runway
roughness and air turbulence, as well as wind gust loads in
storms.
9.4 Fatigue Testing
Rotating bending test (4 point bending constant bending &
no shear)
Reciprocating bending (constant bending stress tapered
and flat specimen)
Axial fatigue test
Closedloop servohydraulic testing machine
9.4 Fatigue Testing
Rotating cantilever beam fatigue testing machine used by
Wohler. D, drive pulley; C, arbor; T, tapered specimen butt; S,
specimen; a, moment arm; G, loading bearing; P, loading spring.
9.4 Fatigue Testing
The R. R. Moore rotating beam fatigue testing machine.
9.4 Fatigue Testing
A reciprocating cantilever bending fatigue testing machine
based on controlled deflections from a rotating eccentric.
9.4 Fatigue Testing
Axial fatigue testing machine based on a resonant vibration caused by a
rotating eccentric mass.
9.4 Fatigue Testing
9.4.2 Test Specimen
Unnotched smooth specimens
Notched specimen
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Small size scale: Anisotropic & inhomogeneous
 Inhomogeneities: Grain structure, tiny voids, particles of
different chemical composition
Damage intensification
 Ductile: Crystal grains slip bands (intense deformation
due to shear motion between crystal planes)
cracks within grains joining with other similar
cracks propagates to failure
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
The process of slip band damage during cyclic loading
developing into a crack in an annealed 70Cu30Zn brass.
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Propagation of a few defects
 Limited ductility: Small cracks develop (high strength
metals) at void, inclusion, slip band, grain
boundary, scratch, sharp flaw crack
growth
to normal to tensile stress
joining other
cracks failure
 Composite materials: Fiber breakage & delamination
fiber pullout & separated layer (final
failure)
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Beach mark: Curved lines concentric about crack origin &
present and mark the propagation of crack at
various stages
 Change of texture of fracture surface: Delayed or
accelerated crack propagation, altered stress level,
temperature chemical environment
 Shear slip: Final fracture surface in lined 45 to applied
stress (rough in texture)
 Striations: Presence of mark left by progress of crack on
each cycle
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Fatigue
crack origin in an unnotched axial test specimen of AISI 4340
steel having 780 MPa, tested at 440 MPa with 0. The inclusion that
started the crack can be seen at the two higher magnifications.
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Stresslife curves for completely reversed bending of smooth
specimens, showing various stages of fatigue damage in an annealed
99% aluminum (12300), and in a hardened 6061T6 aluminum alloy.
9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage
Fatigue failure of an aluminum alloy
airplane propeller. The failure began
at a small gouge on the bottom edge,
approximately 2 cm from the right
end of the scale.
Fracture surfaces for fatigue and final
brittle fracture in an 18 Mn steel
member.
Fatigue striations spaced approximately
0.12 apart, from a fracture surface of a
NiCrMoV steel.
9.7 Mean Stress
9.7.1 Presentation of Mean Stress Data
Family of rotating bending SN curves for various probabilities
of failure, P, from data for small unnotched specimens of 7075T6 aluminum.
9.7 Mean Stress
Family of rotating bending SN
curves for various probabilities of
failure, P, from data for small
unnotched specimens of 7075T6
aluminum.
Stresslife curves for axial
loading of unnotched A517
steel for constant values of
the stress ratio R.
9.7 Mean Stress
9.7.2
Normalized AmplitudeMean Diagrams
* Modified Goodman equation
(conservative)
 Fatigue limit;
9.7 Mean Stress
9.7.3
Additional Mean Stress Equations
Gerber parabola
J. Morrow equation (Modified Goodmans equation)
(Ductile metals)
since for some ductile metals
: True fracture strength
9.7 Mean Stress
SWT (Smith, Watson and Topper) equation
)
Walker equation
)
: special fitting constant (more than one Rs)
9.7 Mean Stress
9.7.4
Life Estimates with Mean Stress
: Equivalent completely reversed stress amplitude
Since
()
or
9.7 Mean Stress
*SWT equations
or
9.7 Mean Stress
Example
4
The AISI 4340 steel of Table 9.1 is subjected to cyclic
loading with a tensile mean stress of
(a) If ?
(b) vs. for
9.7 Mean Stress
Sol)
(a) For
For
9.7 Mean Stress
Sol)
(b)
because
* SWT equation is used
9.7 Mean Stress
Sol)
curve
9.7 Mean Stress
9.7.5
Safety Factor with Mean Stress
since
9.7 Mean Stress
Condition
never to reach actual service life
Morrows equation
STW equation
when
9.7 Mean Stress
Example
5
ManTen steel is subjected in service to a stress amplitude of 180
MPa and a mean stress of 100 MPa for 20,000 cycles.
(a) What are the safety factors in stress and in life?
(b) What load factor corresponds to the 20,000 cycle service
life?
9.7 Mean Stress
Sol)
(a)
9.7 Mean Stress
Sol)
(b)
because
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Ductile materials: Fatigue life is controlled by cyclic amplitude
of octahedral shear stress

Effective stress amplitude
Equivalent completely reverse uniaxial stress
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Combined cyclic pressure and steady bending of a thinwalled
tube with closed ends. The principal directions are constant.
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Combined cyclic pressure and steady torsion of a thinwalled tube with
closed ends. The principal directions oscillate during each cycle.
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Octahedral
shear stress criterion compared with cycle fatigue
strengths for completely reversed biaxial loading.
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Example
6
An unnotched solid circular shaft of diameter 50 mm is made of
the alloy Ti6Al4V of Table 9.1. A zerotomaximum () cyclic
torque of is applied, together with a zerotomaximum cyclic
bending moment of , with the two cyclic loads being applied in
phase at the same frequency. How many load cycles can be
applied before fatigue failure is expected?
(R=0)
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Sol)
since
9.8 Multiaxial Stresses
Sol)
9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading
9.9.1
The PalmgrenMiner Rule
Repeated partial sequence of loading
9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading
Use of the PalmgrenMiner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude
loading which is completely reversed.
Life prediction for a repeating stress history with mean level shifts.
9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading
9.9.2 Cycle Counting for Irregular Histories
Definitions for irregular loading.
Condition for counting a cycle with the rainflow method.
9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading
Example of rainflow cycle counting.
9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading
An irregular load vs. time
history from a ground vehicle
transmission, and a matrix
giving numbers of rainflow
cycles at various combinations
of range and mean. The range
and
mean
values
are
percentages of the peak load; in
constructing the matrix, these
were rounded to the discrete
values shown.
Homework
Problems
9.3, 9.10, 9.23, 9.29, 9.37, 9.41, 9.45