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Forensic

Chemistry
Examinations
PCINSP YELAH M APOSTOL
Forensic Chemist
Philippine National Police Crime Laboratory, Camp Crame, Quezon City,
Philippines

1.1

PNP Crime Laboratory

1.2

Forensic Chemistry

1.3

Forensic Chemistry in Criminal


Investigation

1.4

Relevance of Forensic Chemistry in


Criminal Investigation

1.5

Latest trend in Forensic chemistry

Module Outline

The PNP Crime Laboratory


ISO 9001-2008 (Quality Management)

The fight against crimes cannot be won by


arms alone, but by scientific techniques.

Practice of Forensics in the


Philippines
By virtue of Royal decree 188 by King Philip of Spain.
The creation of Medicos Titulares, a title given to Forensic
Physicians to be assigned in Philippine provinces to perform public
sanitary duties and Medico-Legal aids.

Image: Photo of SebastianSanchezPalomares(wearingahat),Medico


TitularesofPampanga1897Source:Todocoleccion.net

939: PC Chemical Laboratory, Medico Legal Div, PC


1945: Fingerprint record Section, G2 div, Military Police
Command
1946: Crime Lab Branch, G2 div, Military Police
Command
1948: Technical Lab Branch, Crim Invest Service, PC
1955: PC Forensic Laboratory
1960:
1985:
1991:
1996:

PC Central Crime Lab


PC/INP Crime Lab service
PNP Crime Lab Service
PNP Crime Laboratory

2000: Physical science Div, PNPCL separated to Chemistry Div and Physical Identification div

2012: Proposed new name: Forensic Science


Center, PNP

Disposition of personnel in NHQ


and NCR
NHQ Chemistry Div (8 chemist, 2 chem
eng, 1 rmt)
NHQ DNA (3 chemist, 2 biochemist)
NHQ Physical Ident Div (9 chem eng)
NCR QCPD (2 chemist)
NCR NPD (1 chemist, 2 chem eng, 1 rmt)
NCR SPD (2 chemist, 1 chem eng)
NCR MPD (2 chemist, 1 rmt)
NCR EPD (1 chemist, 1 chem eng, 1 rmt)

Forensic Laboratories in the


Philippines

Philippine National Police Crime Laboratory


NBI Crime Laboratory

UP PGH, Manila
PDEA Laboratory Service
Marine Environmental Protection Command, Philippine Coast Guard

ForensicChemistry/Physical
IdentificationExaminations
Types of Evidence

Nature of Case

Forensic Chemistry

Seized drugs

Alleged violation of RA 9165

Explosives and ingredients

Alleged Explosives

Firearm, suspects hands

Alleged Shooting Incident

Body fluids, food sample

Alleged Poisoning

Fake Products

Unfair Trade Competition

Urine and body fluids

Drug Test

Hair, fibers, paints

Hair, fiber, paint Analysis

Marked money, suspects


hands

Alleged Entrapment/ buy-bust


operation

Serial number restoration

Macro etching

Glass and gunshot residues

Bullet Trajectory

impressions

Casting and moulding, tool mark


analysis

Metal, paper, ink, woods etc Trace and Chemical Analysis

What is
Forensic Chemistry?
Isabranchofchemistrythatdealswiththe
applicationofchemicalknowledgeand
principlesinthesolutionoflegalproblemsin
connectionwiththeadministrationofjustice.

Founding Father
of Forensic Chemistry and Forensic toxicology

ProfMatheiuOrfila, chemist, is the father of


modern forensic Toxicology after testifying in court
as expert witness against Madam Marie Lafarge,
after poisoning her husband, Charles Lafarge with
Arsenic.
He used the technique Marsch test to identify
arsenic from the body of Charles LaFarge.

FORENSI
C
CHEMIST
RY EXAM
1. Drugs
2. Explosives
3. Gunshot residue
4. Distance
determination
5.

Toxicology

6.

Fake Products

7.

Blood Alcohol
Drug Test

8.
9.

Clandestine
Lab Invest

10.

Trace Evidence

11.
12.

Lecture
Research

13.

Testify

14.

Advice &

Consultancy
15.

Other function

1. Conduct qualitative and


quantitative examination/
determination of dangerous drugs,
volatile substance and drug
paraphernalia.

Drug Control Agencies


Dangerous
Dangerous
DrugsBoard
DrugsBoard
PhilippineDrug
PhilippineDrug
EnforcementAgency
EnforcementAgency

Police
Police

BureauofCustoms
BureauofCustoms

PhilippineCoastGuard
PhilippineCoastGuard

NationalBureauof
NationalBureauof
Investigation
Investigation

Otherinvestigative
Otherinvestigative
agency
agency

III. Penalties ON dRUGS


I. Sec 15 of RA 9165: Use of Dangerous Drugs
Apersonapprehendedorarrested
whoisfoundtobePOSITIVEfor
dangerousdrugafterconfirmatory
exam

Penalty
1. Firstoffense:Minof6months
rehabilitation
2. Secondoffense:imprisonment
from6yearsand1dayto12years
andfineofP50TtoP200T.

II. Sec 11 of RA 9165: Possession of Dangerous Drugs


ApenaltyoflifeimprisonmenttodeathandfinerangingfromP500TtoP10Mshallbe
imposedtoanyperson,unlessauthorizedbylaw,whopossesanydangerousdrugin
thefollowingquantity:
50gramsormoreofshabu
500gramsormoreofMJ
10gramsormoreofopium,morphine,heroin,cocaineandsalt,Marijuanaresin
andoil,ecstacy.

III. Sec 8 of RA 9165: Manufacture


of Dangerous Drugs
Apenaltyoflifeimprisonmenttodeathandfineranging
fromP500TtoP10Mshallbeimposedtoanyperson,
unlessauthorizedbylaw,shallengageinmanufacture
ofdangerousdrugs.
Apenaltyofimprisonmentfrom12yrsand1dayto20
yrsandfinerangingfromP100TtoP500Tshallbe
imposedtoanyperson,unlessauthorizedbylaw,shall
engageinmanufactureofcontrolledprecursorand
essentialchemicals.

Upon Seizure of drugs, controlled


substance and paraphernalia
Inventory and photograph the item
(suspect, media, DOJ, elected public
official).
Properly marked, sealed or packed.
Estimate the weight

Bringing drug evidence to crime


lab
Within 24 hrs upon seizure,
drugs must be submitted to a
Forensic Laboratory for
examination
Chemistry Division SOP, PNP Crime Lab
If six hours have lapsed from time of apprehension, the examiner shall
refuse to accept the request unless accompanied by explanation from
DD of DAIDSOTG justifying the delay of submission.
Actual weighing of bulk evidence must
be witness by requesting party.
Initial laboratory report is available after
2 hrs of receipt of request.

Manner of Packaging before submission


of evidence to the laboratory
Tape-sealed carton box

Heat-sealed transparent plastic bag

Self-sealing transparent plastic


bag

knot-tied

A. Druggist Fold

4. Place evidence
inside opening

1. Using clean paper,


crease four times

2. Fold into thirds


5. Fold top down
& insert into
bottom opening

3. Fold bottom up

6. Seal end
with tape

Place evidence
inside opening

B. Folded paper packet


Fold into halves

Using square paper,


crease two times

Crease again and


fold

Fold bottom up

Fold top down &


insert into bottom
opening

Seal end
with tape

Drug Describing Physical


Evidence
Specimen
no
1

No of articles

One (1)

Three (3)

One (1)

Two (2)

One (1)

Manner of
packaging
Heatsealed
Tapesealed
Knot-tied
Unsealed
Staplesealed
Selfsealing

Blister
packed/
Foil
packed

folded

container

Markings

-Transparent
plastic sachet
-Transparent
plastic bag
-White plastic bag

With
markings
A

White Disposable
plastic lighter

With
markings
B

contents
Containing White
crystalline substance

Labeled medicol

With
markings
(C1,C2, and
C3)
respectively

Containing three (3) red


tablets/
Containing three (3) blue
and white colored
capsules.

Improvised plastic
tooter

With
markings
C

Containing Traces of white


crystalline substance

Strips of aluminum
foil

With
markings
(D1 and D2)
respectively

Containing Traces of white


crystalline substance

1. One (1) heat-sealed transparent plastic sachet with


markings A containing white crystalline substance.

21

Consideration in the reception


of specimen
1.
2.
3.

4.

Sufficiency of samples
Chemical standard for comparison
Maintenance of Individuality (to prevent
contamination)
Proper labelling and sealing.

SOP in Seized Drug Exam


Receiving of request for lab exam by duty chemist
Examination using qualitative and/or quantitative method.
Report writing of the result of examination
Evidence storage via chain of custody forms
Receipt of Lab result by the requesting party for inquest
purposes
Retrieval of report and evidence for court presentation.
Disposal

Items suspected of containing drugs


occur in four principal forms:
1. Powders/ crystals
2. Tablets and Capsules
3. Living Plants or dried vegetable matter.
4. Liquids

Classification by Origin
NATURAL PRODUCT extracted from
plants or animals.
Example is opium, cocaine, THC, Ephedrine,
Mescaline, LSD

Opuim Poppy
Morphine,
Codeine,
Heroine

Coca leaf

Cannabis
sativa

Ephedra

Peyote
Mescaline

Ergot

Classification by Origin
SEMI-SYNTHETIC made from natural
source but undergone chemical process.
Example: Heroin, Hormones and
Steroids

Opium

Extraction

Acetylation

Solvent

Acetic acid

Morphine

Heroin

Classification by Origin
SYNTHETIC produced in the laboratory
through chemical process.
Example: Diazepam, Barbiturates,
Methamphetamine

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Meth

Meth
Chlorometh

Meth
dimeth
Chloro
-meth

Meth
Dimeth
Chloro
-meth

Meth
dimeth
Chloro
-meth

Met
dimethh

Meth
Chlorometh

Meth

Meth

Meth
Ethylamphetami
ne

Meth
dimeth

MJ/hash

MJ/hash

MJ/hash

MJ

MJ

MJ

MJ

MJ

MJ

MJ

MJ/hash

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine

MDMA

MDMA

MDMA/
DMA

MDMA

MDMA

MDMA

MDMA

MDMA

phenter
mine

phenter
mine

phenter
mine

phenter
mine

phenter
mine

Ephedrin
e

Ephedrin
e/methe
ph

Ephedrin
e.methe
ph
pseudoe
ph

Ephedrin
e

Ephedrin
e/
metheph
pseudoe
ph

ephedrin
e

Ephedrin
e/pseudo
eph

Diazepa
m
nitrazep
am

Diazepa
m
nitrazep
am

Diazepa
m
nitrazep
am
midazola
m

diazepa
m.nitraz
epam
midazola
m
Chlonazepam

Diazepa
m
Estazola
m
midazola
m
Alprazol
am
Chlonazepam
bromaze
pam

Diazepa
m
nitrazep
am
midazola
m

Diazepa
m

Ketamin
e
zolpidem

ketamin
e

Ketamin
e
zolpidem

Ketamin
e
zolpidem

ketamin
e

Toluene/
Cpecs
chlorphe
namine

CPECs
chorphe
namine

toluene

CPECs

Toluene/
acetone

toluene

CPECs

MDMA/
MDA
phenter
mine

Diazepa
m

Toluene/
CPECs

ephedrin
e

Ephedrin
e/norpse
udoeph
pseudoe
ph

Diazepa
m
nitrazep
am

Diazepa
m

Toluene/
CPECs

Bensphe
tamine

Bensphe
tamine

Toluene/
CPECs
Dicholor
obutane

toluene

Arbitrary Drug sampling


Sampling

Advantages
Disadvantage

1. All (n = N)

A: 100% certainty of composition of population.


D. Excessive sample size

2. Percent, n = 0.05N, 0.10N etc.

A: simple method.
D. Excessive sample size

3. Widely used, n = N, n = 0.5


N, n = N/2

A: widely accepted approach.


D. Number of sample is too small from small
population. Excessive sample size for larger
population.

4. n=20+10%(N 20) (where N


>20 )

A: Heterogeneous populations likely to be


discovered
before analysis is complete.
D. Excessive sample sizes for larger populations.

5. For N < x, used n = N.


For x N y, (11 to 99) used n
= z (10).
For N > y, used n = n

A: United Nations Drug Control Programme


(UNDCP) recommended method ( x =10, y =100, z
=10).
D: Excessive sample sizes for larger populations.

6. N = 1

A: Minimum amount of work.


D. Least amount of information on the
characteristics
thebe
seizure.
procedure of
can
performed on a population

A representative sampling
of units with
sufficient similar external characteristics. Where n = total population while N = number of
sample to be collected.

Coning and quartering


method

Stimulants(ATS)
AMPHETAMINE TYPE
And newly emerging drugs
ary
m
i
r
p
e
s
o
h
w
s
e
tiv
c
or
a
o
e
h
n
i
c
sy
am
p
t
f
e
o
h
p
s
- clas one is am
b
e
back thylamin
e
Phen

What is Amphetamine Type


Stimulants (ATS)?

They contain a common backbone/ skeleton

Phenyl-ethyl-amine
Phenyl group

methcathinone

fenetylline

Ethyl group

ephedrine

Amine group

MDMA

What is Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS)?

ATS refer to a group of drugs whose


principal members include amphetamine
and methamphetamine. (WHO definition)

Meth
crystals are
brittle.

Also bitter
taste.

What is Amphetamine Type


Stimulants (ATS)?

Aside from Meth, a


range of other
substances also fall
into this group, such
as:

methcathinone

fenethylline
captagon

ephedrine

MDMA or
ecstacy

pseudoephedrine

methylphenidate

History of Methylamphetamine
Hydrochloride (shabu) manufacture

Methylamphetamine was
originally synthesized from
Ephedrine in Japan by Dr
Nagayoshi Nagai (1888).
And was later synthesized in
crystalline form in 1919 by
Akira Ogata via Iodoephedrine
method.

Dr Nagayoshi Nagai (1844-1921)


Japanese organic chemist and
pharmacologist
First doctor of Pharmacy in Japan

History of Methylamphetamine
Hydrochloride (shabu)
manufacture
It is since 1941 during the World
War 2 that Methamphetamine had
been manufactured and sold for
medical supplies in Japan.

Immediately following World


War II, Crystal Meth was
extensively used to reduce
fatigue and suppress appetite.

After the war era, Meth tablets, referred to as


"work pills" were widely used in Japan.

Early Methamphetamine; Philopon


Philopon, pronounced Hiropon, a trade name

Philippine Drug Trend


1984
Marijuana (1386 cases)
Cocaine (5 cases, 785g, 655g, 425g,
59g, 1.5g)
Mandrax (3 cases,= 980 tab, 12 tab, 1
tab)
Amphetamine (1 case)
LSD (8pcs)
Valium (4 cases)
Heroin (6 cases)
Clonazepam (1 case)
Rugby (12 cases)

1987
Marijuana (1310 cases)
Methamphetamine (50 cases)
Cocaine (5 cases)
Codeine (1 case)
Valium (5 cases)
Mandrax (3 cases, 980 tab, 12 tab, 1
tab)
Heroin (3 cases)
Rugby (6 cases)

1985

Marijuana
Cocaine
Rivotril
Clonazepam
Valium
Pentazocine

2009
Marijuana (1310 cases)
Methamphetamine (24,768.13
grams)
Cocaine
Heroin
BZP
ecstacy

Trend of Methamphetamine Smuggling


Skillful concealment

Instant Noodle

Capsule

Aluminum Tea Bag

Condenser

Trend of Methamphetamine Smuggling


Skillful concealment

100 kg of Methamphetamine was


concealed in 2 fire extinguishers
on a vessel

Human courier

Trend of Methamphetamine Smuggling

Disguise and
Refinement

Mixed in a solution

Mixed with other substance

Field Test for shabu using


Simons test Reaction
Reagent:
5% Sodium carbonate,
5% acetaldehyde in
ethanol,
1% Sodium
nitroprusside

Turn to blue color

(1) Add sample in


test tube
(2) Bend test
tube
9/22/16

Request for qualitative


analysis?
Qualitative is the determination of
substance present in the sample.
Quantitative is the determination of
substance purity in the sample.

Request for
laboratory
examination/
qualitative
analysis: to
determine the
presence of
dangerous drugs

Steps in qualitative
analysis
Physical test
1. Describing the condition of specimen as received.

One (1) knot-tied white plastic bag labeled Hi-Top with markings RAID-A containing One (1)
self-sealing transparent plastic bag with markings RAID BB wrapped with newspaper marked
as RAID-B containing white crystalline substance.

Steps in qualitative
analysis

Physical test
2. Measurement of Gross weight and net weight or
measuring the height of the plant.

Gross weight total


weight with the container

Net weight total weight


of the contents only.

Steps in qualitative
analysis

Physical test
3. Conduct Microscopic examination
Cuticle of hair

Cotton fiber

Paint
layer

Marijuana
cystolith

Steps in qualitative
analysis

Chemical test

MJ, squash, cassava, papaya

Steps in qualitative
analysis

confirmatory

Solvent System A

Solvent System B

RfAS1 = 4.5/8.5 = 0.53


RfAQ1 = 4.5/8.5 = 0.53
RfAS2 = 4.4/8.5 = 0.52
RfAQ2 = 4.4/8.5 = 0.52

RfBS3 = 3.5/8.5 = 0.41


RfBQ3 = 4.4/8.5 = 0.52
RfBS4 = 4.4/8.5 = 0.52
RfBQ4 = 4.4/8.5 = 0.52

Steps in qualitative
analysis

confirmatory

Marijua
na
Compon
ents
Trial 1

color

Extract
using
methan
ol

Rf
values

Cannabid
iol
Cannabin
ol
Delta-9THC
Trial 2
Cannabid
iol
Cannabin
ol
Delta-9THC

Extract Rf
using
values
Ethanol

orange

2.7

0.32

0.35

purple

2.2

0.26

2.5

0.29

Red

1.9

0.22

2.1

0.25

orange

2.8

0.33

2.8

0.33

purple

2.4

0.28

2.4

0.28

Red

2.0

0.24

2.0

0.24

Infrared Analysis

Within 24 hrs
initial and final report shall be prepared by chemist

Take note the following:


Time and date
received.
Name of suspect
Container and other
things accompanied it
Description and its
weight.
Name of analysis
chain of custody form.

Quantitative analysis issue


Quantitative analysis stated in RA
9165 is determination of weight of
the substance and not the purity.
Percent purity (quantitative
examination) shall be conducted
only by virtue of court order.

Paraphernalia
(label sharp for sharp paraph)

2:30 PM Libertad st.. 24, s,


jobless

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
RY
3. Gunshot residue
4. Distance
determination
5.
Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine
Lab Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function

2. Conduct examination of
explosives and/or explosive
ingredients.
Explosives under RA
7183 and PD1866
PD 1866: regulating
firearms, ammunition
or explosives and its
manufacturing
instruments.
RA 7183: Firecracker
and pyrotechnic law.

Definitions
Explosion broadly defined as the sudden
rapid escape of gases from a confine space,
accompanied by high temp, violent shock
and loud noise.
Explosive a substance, chemical
compound of mixture that under the
influence of heat, pressure, friction or shock
undergoes a sudden chemical change or
decomposition.

Explosives

High Explosives
Primary
secondary

Low Explosives
Primer
Igniter
propellant

Explosives RRDK

FUNCTIONS
CAPABILITIES

and

1.Toconductexaminationofexplosivesonpre
blastconditionandresidueanalysison
collectedspecimensfromabombingincident.
2.Toidentifywhattypeofexplosivesand
explosiveingredientsused.

Screening test for


explosives
3 drops of DPA reagent in a
white tile.

Test for TNT (Janowski


test)
Test for RDX (thymol
test)
Test for nitrates using
Diphenyl amine
reagent

Color test

Result: blue
coloration

Screening test for


explosives
RF Values of common explosives

Thin Layer
Chromatography

RfVALUESOFEXPLOSIVESINVARIOUSSOLVENTSYSTEMS

RDX

TETRYL

PETN

TNT

NG

CHOLOROFORM

0.14

0.75

0.46

0.69

0.70

BENZENE

0.12

0.69

0.43

0.64

0.61

XYLENE

0.53

0.75

0.40

0.59

0.52

HEXANE

0.35

0.54

0.37

0.47

0.44

CHCl3:ACETONE(1:1)

0.72

0.85

0.83

0.84

0.77

BENZENE:ACETONE
(28:2)

0.26

0.87

0.73

0.77

0.71

0.43

0.11

0.24

0.32

SOLVENT

XYLENE:HEXANE(3:2)
XYLENE:CHCl3(1:1)

0.75

0.65

0.34

0.51

0.48

XYLENE:CHCl3:ACETO
NE(15:12:3)

0.27

0.87

0.67

0.74

0.67

Test for Physical Properties of


Explosives
StereoMicroscope
-Usedforphysicalexaminationofexplosivesandexplosive
ingredientsinapre-blastandpost-blastinvestigations.
-Equippedwithdigitalcameraandlaptopforeffectiveviewing.

Pyridine extract/ Toluene extract

Ion Mobility Spectrometer


(Ionscan 500DT)
Capableofdetecting
andidentifyingvery
lowconcentrationsof
organicexplosives.
Mainfeatureincludes:
portableandfast
responseand
detection.

GC-MS Agilent 6890GC5975MS


A powerful tool for
identification of
organic explosives
and explosive
ingredients.
Useful in detecting
explosive mixtures
using a sensitive
separation
technique and a
detector.

Ion Chromatograph (Dionex ICS


2000)
Usedinthe
determinationof
anionsinexplosive
residues.
Ex.Nitrates,
Chlorates,Sulfates,
Phosphates

Smiths Identify IR
IdentifyIRisarugged,
miniaturizedFT-IR(Fourier
TransformInfrared)analysis
systemthatisfast,easy-to-use,
andaccurate.
-canhandlepowders,liquids,
solids,gels&pastesinboth
organic&aqueoussolvents.

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
RY
3. Gunshot
residue
4. Distance
determination
5.
Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine Lab
Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function

3. Conduct examination of
Firearms and paraffin casts for
the presence of gunpowder
nitrates.
- casting shall be done within
72 hrs from the time of
alleged firing, otherwise the
request shall be denied.

- embalmed cadaver shall not be subjected to paraffin exam.

True Positive vs False


Positive
Substance giving false positive
result:
fertilizers
explosives
tobacco
urine
certain cosmetics
Blue specks with
tailing (because
the particles are
embedded into
hands with force)

food samples
cigarette
Smudgesorconglomeration
ofbluespecks
75

Factors affecting the result of


paraffin exam
Types of caliber
Types of firearm and its mechanism
Wind velocity and direction
humidity
Use of gloves
72 hrs already lapsed

BulletholeExamination:testforLeadandCopper

SEM-EDX

Scanning Electron
Microscope with
Energy Dispersive
Xray Analysis

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
3. Gunshot
RYresidue
Distance
determination
4.

Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine
Lab Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function
5.

4. Conduct gunpowder
examination of clothing for
possible gunshot range
determination.

Distance Determination
classification

Contact/
burning

Singeing
- Slightly
burning

Smudging

Powder
Tatooing

Angular bullet hole

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
3. Gunshot
RY

residue
4. Distance
determination
5.
Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine
Lab Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function

5. Conduct chemico-toxicological examination of


human internal organs, gastric contents, blood,
water and food samples for the presence of
chemical poisons.
- Require standards

Poison Investigation
Most important is the sight and smell of
scene..
1. Is the position appears poisoned?

two papers suggests that drug absorption is lowest in patients lying on their left
side, so you might want to consider placing an unconscious overdose patient in
the left-sided recovery position prior to definitively managing them in hospital.

Poison Investigation
Most important is the sight and smell of
scene..
2. The skin and mouth, lips, rectum, vagina
and genitals?

Poison Investigation
Most important is the sight and smell of
scene..
3. The pupils of the eyes...

Poison Investigation
Most important is the sight and smell of
scene..
4. Odors present...
5. Possible skin marks via hypodermic needle
injections.

Poison Investigation
Most important is the sight and smell of
scene..
6. The hands for the presence of objects.

Food Poisoning

Symptoms of poisoning appeared soon after


a drink or meal taken.
the investigator should thoroughly see that all
liquids, foods, and medicines on the premises are
preserved.
These can be found at the medicine cabinet,
pantry, refrigerator, and even the reuse container.

Food Poisoning

If many hours have elapsed after the meal


was ingested, the possibility of food as the
source of poison may be eliminated.
When symptoms of poisoning occur, the
investigator can reasonably assume that the victim
had taken the poison from on-half to one (1/2 to 1)
hour before the first symptoms appeared.
In corrosive poisons, symptoms appeared
immediately.

One way of proving poisoning is by chemical


analysis of stomach contents and body fluids.

Preservation of evidence

The evidence (as biological in origin) can be


preserved in a plastic or glass container and
stored in freezer 100C or below. Sample can
be discarded according to the laboratory
policies and SOPs.

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
3. Gunshot
RY

residue
4. Distance
determination
5.
Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine
Lab Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function

6. Perform laboratory examination of fake


products in comparison with standard
specification for cases of unfair trade competition.
(ex Fake fundador, adulterated cement,
adulterated beer, fake chlorox, fake cigarette).

Fake product request


Letter request for examination.
Investigator is required to coordinate with
the manufacturer regarding standard
sample, which will be used for
comparative analysis and possible used of
their facilities in the examination of
questioned samples.
For media presentation, a letter request is
necessary addressed to the Dir, Crime
Lab.

FORENSI
C
1. Drugs
CHEMIST
2. Explosives
3. Gunshot
RY

residue
4. Distance
determination
5.
Toxicology
6.
Fake Products
7.
Blood Alcohol
8.
Drug Test
9.
Clandestine
Lab Invest
10. Trace Evidence
11. Lecture
12. Research
13. Testify
14. Advice &
Consultancy
15. Other function

7. Conduct blood alcohol determination.


Typesofalcoholicbeverages:
1. Fermented low alcoholic content, example beer =
4-6% ethanol
2.Wine 8-14%
3.DistilledSpirits high alcoholic content
a. 100 proof = 50% ethanol
b. 80 proof = 40% ethanol
4.Combination(fortified, port & sherry wines)
A person is said to suffer from alcohol intoxication when the quantity of
alcohol the person consumes exceeds the individual's tolerance for
alcohol and produces behavioral or physical abnormalities.
In other words, the person's mental and physical abilities are impaired.
The person can't function and certainly should not be operating a motor
vehicle. It acts on the forebrain then to the central and rear portion are
affected.

Blood alcohol level

The amount of alcohol in the blood stream


recorded in milligrams of alcohol per 100
milliliters of blood, or milligrams percent.
BAL of .10 means that 1/10 of 1 percent (or
1/1000) of your total blood content is alcohol.

Blood alcohol level


BAL
0.02

Effect
Mellow feeling, slight body warmth, less
inhibited
0.05
Noticeable relaxation, less alert, less selffocused, coordination impairment begins.
0.08
Drunk driving limit, definite impairment in
coordination and judgement.
0.10
Noisy, possible embarrassing behaviour,
mood swings, reduction in reaction time.
0.15
Impaired balance and movement, clearly
drunk
0.20-0.25 Typically felt sleepy to sleep.
0.30
Many lose consciousness
0.40
Most lose consciousness and some die
0.50
Breathing stops, many die

Field Sobriety Test


1.

Psycho-physical test
a. Horizontal gaze nystagmus uncontrollable
jerking as the eyes moves toward the sides.
b. One leg stand and walk nine steps.

2. Breath analysis

3. Blood Alcohol Examination

Conway Method for Blood


Alcohol Level

FORENSI
C
CHEMIST
1. Drugs
2.
RY
Explosives

3. Gunshot
residue
4. Distance
determinat
ion
5. Toxicology
6. Fake
Products
7. Blood
Alcohol

8. Drug
Test
9. Clandestin
e Lab
Invest
10.Trace
Evidence
11.Lecture
12.Research

8. Examine urine and other body


fluids for drug metabolites.

PNP Mass promotions


PNP Recruitment
PNP Re-enlisment
Persons apprehended under RA 9165
PNP firearms License
Other government employee under drug
investigation

MandatoryDrugTesting
Drivers and firearms license, military
and law enforcers, persons
apprehended under RA 9165
RandomDrugTesting
Students, office personnel,
government employees etc.

Drug Test vs Drug Dependency


Test

Drug test is the


determination of the
presence of dangerous
drugs in human body
fluids (urine, blood,
sweat, saliva) and hair

Conducted in a
Forensic Lab or private
drug testing
laboratory

Drug dependenct
test is the
examination of
behavioral pattern,
attitude and
response.. It includes
several test including
drug test.

Conducted by
psychiatrist.

Substance Approximate Detection Time


Amphetamines = 2-4 days

Methadone = 3-5 days

Barbituates (Short-Acting) = 1 day

Methaqualone = 14 days

Barbituates (Long-Acting) = 2-3


weeks

Nicotine ?

Benzodiazepines 3-7 days

Opiates = 2-4 days

Cannabinoids 3-45 days

Peptide hormones = undetectable

Clenbuterol = 2-4 days

Phencyclidine (PCP) = 2-4 days

Cocaine = 2-4 days

Phenobarbital = 10-20 days

Codeine = 2-5 days

Propoxyphene = 6 hours to 2 days

Euphorics (MDMA, psilocybin) 1-3


days

Steroids (anabolic oral) = 14 days

LSD6 = 1-4 days

Steroids (anabolic parenterally) 1


month

Table 2.1: EMIT Detection Times of Substances in Urine

The substance being tested, testing method, and levels tested for are major factors.

Drug Test
Two (2) stages of examination
1. Screening using test kits
detection limit: Meth = 1000 ng/ml
MJ = 50 ng/ml

Negative

MET
Positive

THC
Positive

MET & THC


Positive

Invalids

Drug Test
2. Confirmatory
a) Thin Layer Chromatography
b) Instrumentation-Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS)

Meth and amp

Factor Affecting the Presence of Drugs in the Body:

1.Typeofdrugs&itsclearancerateinurine
2.FrequencyofIntake
3.MetabolicRate
4.RouteofAdministration

Legal Aspect

Comprehensive dangerous drug Act of 2002


First offense: min of 6 months rehab
Second offense: 6 to 12 years imprisonment and
fine of 100 to 500T.

Validity of result: 1 year after issuance

FORENSI
C
CHEMIST
1. Drugs
2.
RY
Explosives

3. Gunshot
residue
4. Distance
determinat
ion
5. Toxicology
6. Fake
Products
7. Blood
Alcohol
8. Drug Test
9. Clandesti
ne Lab
Invest
10.Trace
Evidence
11.Lecture
12.Research

9. Conduct clandestine lab


investigation

Clan Lab
Small (1-10 kg)
Medium (11-50kg)
large scale (51kg above)

Ephedrine/ controlled precursor,


dangerous drugs in pier, Manila

Inventory and Field testing of


drugs by chemist in clan lab cases

Function of Chemistry
Division
10. Give lectures to police training center and
military investigative schools, universities
and colleges.

Function of Chemistry
Division
11. Conduct research
12. Testify as expert witness
13. Respond to investigators queries on
matters of assisting to develop investigative
leads.
14. Perform other police duties.

Physical Identification

Ultraviolet exam

Macro etching
Hair fibers and Paint Analysis

Practice of Forensic
Chemistry
1. Collection at the site and Reception of
specimen to be examined
the chemist should personally collect the
specimen or supervise collector for proper
evaluation.

Practice of Forensic
Chemistry
2. Conduct examination of the specimen
Some specimen requires longer duration of
examination due to the availability of
instruments, standards and method.

Practice of Forensic
Chemistry
3. Report in writing the result of examination
we do not give the result loosely to everyone.

Practice of Forensic
Chemistry
4. Give advice or consultation with the requesting
parties.

5. Testify in Court as an expert witness.

Becoming Forensic
Professional

Profession requires existence of associations


that have recognized and accepted
authority within the profession.
NAPOLCOM RESOLUTION NO 99-115 dated August
26, 1999 subject Professionalizing the Crime
Laboratory Services of the Philippine National
Police (PNP) Through the Implementation of a
Certification Program for Technical Personnel in
the Field of Forensic Science.

Becoming Forensic
Professional
Forensic Examiner
Forensic Specialist
Forensic Expert


Communication and
Team work
still the hallmarks of good
forensic investigation

Thank you for your


attention

Any questions and comment please send it to:


pinspdeguzman@yahoo.com
7230401local 4226