such as altered weather-patterns (including  droughts or floods). increased pollution. Water shortages may be caused by climate change. It affects every continent and around 2. Water scarcity involves water shortage.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year. and water crisis. Two converging phenomena drive water scarcity: growing freshwater use and depletion of usable freshwater resources Many countries and governments aim to reduce water scarcity. and increased human demand and overuse of water . The term water crisis labels a situation where the available potable.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water. More than 1. water stress or deficits.Why to conserve WATER ? Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs  within a region. unpolluted water within a region is less than that region's demand. The UN recognizes the importance of reducing the number of people without sustainable access to clean water .

Population. strategies and activities made to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource. household size. In some .  Energy conservation as water pumping. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in  manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. to protect the water environment.Water Conservation Water conservation encompasses the policies. and to meet current and future human demand. and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. The goals of water conservation efforts include:  Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy.

Sprinkle Irrigation 7. Drip Irrigation .New Technologies To Conserve Water 1. Joy Pumps 4. Water Wheel 6. Roof top Rain water harvesting 2. Rain Water Syringe 5. Ferro-Cement Tanks 3.

we rarely make an effort to conserve it.Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting All of us who directly consume water are the most important stakeholders in managing water. It is a simple model where the roof acting as a catchment for rainfall. the rooftop rainwater harvesting method has provided a solution that can be practiced easily in every household. which after flowing through a series of filters and pipes is stored in ground-level containers for direct use or recharged into ground water. While many of us urbanites use or waste a lot of water. . Fortunately.

cement. These tanks requiring materials like sand. mild steel bar and galvanized iron wire mesh.Ferro-cement Tanks This is a low cost alternative for expensive water harvesting containers made of masonry. It has proved highly effective in high rainfall regions where large amount of water need to stored in clean form. It can be appropriate for use in Indian villages and disaster prone areas as its fireproof and tough in build. It’s light in weight and can be moulded into any shape required. It is believed to last for around 25 years with little maintenance. can be easily constructed by semi skilled labours. . plastic and RCC.

groundwater is drawn and tank (around 8-10 meters above ground) is filled. It has been used in developing countries like India and Africa.Joy Pumps Ever imagined filling up an overhead tank by kids playing around? This innovation was designed to mitigate water scarcity problems in villages with no clean surface water source. Attached below a merry-go-round wheel or a seesaw. It can be installed even at far off places and has easy maintenance. It’s basically a community structure and can be set up in schools. parks. no electricity and poor monetary capacity. Span pumps pvt limited. is an arrangement similar to a conventional hand pump. As children ride on these wheels. . a Pune based company is designing such pumps in India. villages and relief camps. It can also be used to pump water from bore wells and large storage tankers.

Rainwater is collected from the roof tops of houses and stored in a pressure tank on the ground and with the help of PVC pipes. but construction of rainwater overhead tanks is unaffordable for marginal farmers. It has proved successful in diluting recharging ground water in coastal areas of Kerela and Antoji has installed 150 tanks in different parts of Kerala. Rainwater harvesting is a viable option for solving the issue of drinking water.Rain Water Syringe Most of the open wells and tube wells in coastal areas contain salty water due to seepage of sea water. The water is retained in the underground water column which is then harvested during summer by a simple piston pump or motor by constructing a tube well in the vicinity. . water is lowered below sea level (16-24 feet). Antoji in Kerala has innovated a cost effective method for harvesting rainwater in coastal areas.

This invention has made carrying water not only an effortless but fun activity. who carried round earthen matkas on head for long distances in hot weather. water wheel can store upto 10 to 50 litres of water in hygienic conditions.Water Wheel This innovation comes from a foreign visitor who was inspired by women from villages of Rajasthan. It has already become popular in villages of Gujarat. Designed to reduce the drudgery and save time of working women. It’s affordable too costing around 2000 rupees. This resulted in wastage of water falling off from the matkas. It’s designed for lasting on rough terrains and made from high quality plastic. . Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It is a round wheel shaped storage tanker with an attached handle on top to provide painless mobility.

Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. The pump supply system. as a cooling system. or for recreation. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. Sprinkler irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. The sprinkler system irrigates the field and thus it is widely used in sandy areas as it checks the wastage of water through seepage and evaporation.Sprinkle irrigation Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers providing irrigation to vegetation. or for the control of airborne dust. sprinklers and operating conditions must be designed to enable a uniform .

Water applied by drip irrigation is less subject to wind. It places water directly on the soil. runoff and evaporation. Drip irrigation can increase irrigation efficiency from 70 percent or even 50 percent to 95 percent. above the feeder roots.Drip Irrigation Drip irrigation technology saves large amounts of water while improving horticultural results. instead of spraying it into the air or over the surface of the ground at high pressures and volumes. .

which can be linked to the harvesting system. It is important to do so since drinking water is not easily renewable and it helps in reducing wastage. there is little requirement for building new infrastructure for the rainwater harvesting system. 4. Can be Used for Several Non-drinking Purposes: Water when collected can be used for several non-drinking functions including flushing toilets. the demand for water is also continuously increasing. Suitable for Irrigation: As such. 5. The end result is that many residential colonies and industries are extracting ground water to fulfill their daily demands. Most rooftops act as a workable catchment area. this leads to a large reduction in their utilities bill. 2.    .Advantages of water conservation 1. For many families and small businesses. 3. washing cars etc. First of all. Reducing Water Bills: Water collected from the water conservation techniques  can be put to use for several non-drinking functions as well. watering the garden. Easy to Maintain: Utilizing the water conservation techniques  provides certain advantages to the community. washing clothes. harvesting rainwater allows us to better utilize an energy resource. Reduces Demand on Ground Water: With increase in population.

 Regular Maintenance: These water conservation systems require regular maintenance as they may get prone to rodents. insects.Disadvantages of Water Conservation  Unpredictable Rainfall: Rainfall is hard to predict and sometimes little or no rainfall can limit the supply of rainwater.  Initial High Cost: Depending on the system’s size and technology level. a rainwater harvesting system may cost anywhere between $200 to $2000 and benefit from it cannot be derived until it is ready for use. algae growth. During the heavy . mosquitoes.   Certain Roof Types may Seep Chemicals or Animal Droppings: Certain types of roofs may seep chemicals. insects and lizards. dirt or animals droppings that can harm plants if it is used for watering the plants. They can become as breeding grounds for many animals if they are not properly maintained.  It is not advisable to depend on rainwater alone for all your water needs in areas where there is limited rainfall.  Storage Limits: The collection and storage facilities may also impose some kind of restrictions as to how much rainwater you can use.

830  Drishti Ochani.835  Harsh Purswani.832  Nikhil Pamnani.834  Punit Pohwani.836 Thank you! .831  Ritu Pahuja.Presentation by: Pallavi Moryani.833  Sahil Panjwani.