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HR PLANNING, RECRUITMENT
AND SELECTION

HR PLANNING

HR planning, Man power planning, Personnel planning,


employment planning
1st aspect of HRP estimation of the number & type of
people needed during the coming period.
Concerned with management of the most important
m - man power
Important subsystem of total organizational planning.
It is how organizations assess the future supply of
and demand for human resources.

It is the process of determining manpower


requirements and the means of meeting those
requirements in order to carry out the
integrated plan of the organization.
-----Coleman

HRP is a process by which an organization


should move from its current manpower
position to its desired manpower position ,
through planning, mgmt strives to have the
right kind of people at the right time, doing
things which result in both the organization and
the individual receiving max. long run benefit.E.W.Vetter

In simple words, HRP is the process of forecasting


an organization's future demand for & supply of
the right type of people in the right number.

NEED OF HR PLANNING
Every organization needs personnel to carry
out work activities
There is a need for replacing personnel
Labor turnover is unavoidable
To meet the needs of expansion,
diversifications
To meet challenges & opportunities
To facilitate new technology
To abide to Govt. policies, work conditions,
pressure from trade unions, etc.

Scope

of Human Resource Planning

It keeps the record of current manpower with the


organization.
Assessing the future requirements of manpower for
organization objectives.
To make the manpower recruitment plans.
To phase out the surplus employees.
To make a layout of training programme for different
categories of employees.
Avoids imbalance in distribution & allocation
To assess & forecast future skills requirement
To foresee employee turnover , to minimize & to fill
vacancies
To meet the needs of diversification & expansion
To control cost aspects of HR.

HRP PROCESS
Strategic
Planning

Human Resource Demand

Technological
Technological forecasts
forecasts
Economic
forecasts
Economic forecasts
Market
Market forecasts
forecasts
Investment
Investmentplanning
planning
Annual
operating
Annual operatingplans
plans

Annual
Annual employment
employment
requirements
requirements

Human Resource Supply


Compared
with

Variances
Variances

Action
Decision
s

Existing
Existing employment
employment
inventory
inventory

If none

IfIfsurplus
surplus

IfIfshortage
shortage

Decisions
Decisions

Decisions
Decisions

Layoff,
Layoff,
retirement,
retirement,
etc.
etc.

Overtime,
Overtime,
recruitment,
recruitment,
etc.
etc.

End
End

End
End

End
End

WHAT IS JOB ANALYSIS?


A systematic approach to collect information
about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the
skills required to perform those tasks.
An important part of Human Resources (HR)
planning.

The job; not the person: an important concept of


job analysis is that the analysis is conducted of
the job, not the person. The product of the
analysis is a job description or specifications of
the job, not a description of the person.
Create a job.

Job Analysis

Job Description

Job Specification

Job

analysis is vital to any HRM


program and answers such questions
as:
How

long does it take to complete important


tasks?
Which tasks are grouped together as a job?
How can a job be designed or structured so that
employee performance can be enhanced?
What kind of person, in terms of traits and
experience, is best suited for the job?

USES OF JOB ANALYSIS


HRP
Recruitment
Selection
Placement and orientation
Training
Employee safety
Performance Appraisal
Job design and re-design
Job evaluation
Compensation and benefits
Increase productivity.

JOB DESCRIPTION.
According to M.W. Cuming, A job description
is a board statement of the purpose, scope, duties
and responsibilities of a particular job.
It is a written statement of what the job holder
does, how it is done, under what conditions it is
done and why it is done.
The employee would be given the job description
so they would know exactly know what is
expected of them. They would be told the goals,
the work hours, the required tasks to complete
and how they would be compensated

CONTENTS OF JOB DESCRIPTION


Job identification
Job summary
Job duties and responsibilities
Relation to the other jobs
Supervision
Machines and materials
Working conditions.

JOB SPECIFICATION
Job specification or job requirements is a by product
of job analysis it is a statement of minimum
acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a
given job properly- Edwin B Flippo.
Astatementofemployeecharacteristicsandqualifi
cationsrequiredfor satisfactoryperformanceof
defineddutiesandtaskscomprising a
specificjoborfunction. Job specification is derived
fromjob analysis.

JOB SPECIFICATION

1.
2.
3.
4.

Job specification typically includes:


Degree of education
Desirable amount of previous experience in
similar work
Specific skills required
Health considerations.

JOB EVALUATION

OBJECTIVES OF JOB EVALUATION


To gather information relating to each and various
job in an organization job.
To compare the duties, responsibilities and demands
of a job with that of other jobs.
To determine the hierarchy/rank based on jobs in an
organization.
To ensure equal wages are fixed to the jobs of equal
worth or value.
To minimize wage discrimination based on sex, age,
caste, religion etc

METHODS OF JOB EVALUATION.

Following are the methods of job-evaluation:


(A) Non-Quantitative Methods:
(1) Ranking Method.
(2) Job classification or Grading System.
(B) Quantitative Methods:
(1) Factor Comparison Method.
(2) Point Method.

RECRUITMENT

Recruitment is the process of finding and


attracting capable applicants for employment.
Process of searching for and obtaining applicants
for job, so that from among them the right people
can be selected.
Recruitment process is send to end with the
receipt of applications. In practice, the activity
extends to the screening of applications so as to
eliminate those who are not qualified for the job.

According to Edwin B Flippo, Recruitment is


the process of searching for prospective
employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs
in the organization.
According to Dale Yoder, Recruitment is a
process to discover the sources of manpower to
meet the requirements of the staffing schedule
and to employ effective measures for attracting
that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate
effective selection of an efficient working force.

FACTORS GOVERNING RECRUITMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Internal factors

Pay package
Organizational image
Quality of work life
Org,. Culture
Growth rate
Role of trade union.
Career planning &
development.
Size of the organization
Geog. Spread of
companys activities

External factors

4.

Supply / demand factors


Labor market conditions
Political / legal /govt.
factors
Socio economic factors

5.

Unemployment rate.

1.
2.
3.

24

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT
Methods of recruitment

Methods of
recruitment

Internal
recruitment
External
recruitment

PhotoDisc

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT

Internal
Internal recruitment
recruitment

Advertising jobs inside the


business and appointing
internally from its existing
employees

Advantages: a chance for


employees, less risk of employing
wrong persons, quicker and
cheaper
Disadvantages: limited numbers
of applicants, no chance for
external applicants.

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT

Firms fill vacancies by


recruiting new
employees
Advantages: a wider
number of applicants for
choice
Disadvantage: expensive
and time-consuming

External
External recruitment
recruitment

INTERNAL METHODS
Transfer

and promotion
Job posting
Employee referrals
Former employees

EXTERNAL METHODS
Campus recruitment
Scouting
Advertisements
Professional associations
Employment agencies
Trade unions
Internships
Executive search agencies(head hunters)
Walk-in applicants

SELECTION

SELECTION
Selection is the process of picking individuals
(out of the pool of job candidates) with requisite
qualification and competence to fill job in the
organization.
It is the process of examine the applicants with
regard to their suitability for the given job or jobs
and choosing the best from the suitable
candidates and rejecting the others.

According to Terrie Nolinske, Selection is the


process of making a hire or no-hire decision
regarding each applicant for a job.
According to Dale Yoder, Selection is the process in
which candidates for employment are divided into
two classes those who are to be offered employment
and those who are not. Selection means a process by
which qualified personnel may be chosen from the
applicants offering their services to the organization
for employment.

WHY CAREFUL SELECTION IS


IMPORTANT
HR

managers performance depends on


the performance of subordinates.
Good selection practices increase
organizational productivity, decrease
turnover rate and replacement costs

EMPLOYEE TESTING AND


SELECTION
SELECTION TEST:
Employee testing and selection is the use of
various tools and techniques to select the best
candidates for the job.
Selection test is the process of selecting right
person to the right job

BASIC TESTING CONCEPTS

Reliability test
Consistency of scores obtained by the same
person when re-tested with identical or
equivalent tests.
Are test results stable over time?
Degree to which an experiment or evaluation
procedure gives consistent results each time it
is employed.
Reliability can be assessed in a variety of ways:
1. Test-retest reliability
2. Inter-rater reliability
3. Parallel-forms reliability

Validity

Indicates whether a test is measuring what it is


supposed to be measuring.
Does the test actually measure what it is intended to
measure?
Validity is the degree to which a measure accurately
predicts job performance. Selection methods are valid
to the extent that predictors measure or are
significantly related to work behavior, job products, or
outcomes. The process of demonstrating that a
predictor is significantly related to a measure of work
behavior, job products, or outcomes is validation.
In employment testing, there are following ways to
demonstrate a tests validity:
1. Criterion-related validity
2. Content validity
3. Construct validity

USE OF SELECTION TEST


Preliminary

screening device
Reliable tool.
Ideal for large groups
Predictor of intangible talents
Record for future.

SELECTION PROCESS
Screening of
Applicants(Application form)
Selection tests
Selection Interview
Medical Examination
Reference Check and
Background Verification
Hiring Decisions

INTERVIEW

Aninterviewis a conversation between two or more


people wherequestionsare asked by the interviewer
to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee.
A formal meeting in which one or more person
question or evaluate other person.

TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
Unstructured

interview
Structured interview
Personal interview or one-to-one interviews.
Panel interview
Stress interview
Situational interview
Behavioral interview
Depth interview
Telephone interview
Video conferencing

INTERVIEW PROCESS
Well

defined job description


Conducting interview
Closing the interview
Evaluation of interview results.

+++++++

++

++++++++++++++

ERRORS IN SELECTION
1. Subjectivity over objectivity
2.Making hasty decisions
3. Accountability for selection errors
4. Lack of good information on candidates
5. The wrong people are doing the hiring

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment

Selection

It is a positive process

It is a negative process

It always proceeds selection

It always succeeds recruitment

The basic objective of recruitment is The basic objectives of selection is


to attract maximum number of
to choose best out of the available
candidates so that more options are candidates
available
It does not result in contract of
service

It leads to contract of service


between the employer and selected
candidate

The outcome of recruitment is


application pool which becomes
input for selection process

The outcome of selection process is


in the form of finalizing candidates
who will be offered job.