# Chapter4

Bandpass Signalling
 Definitions
 Complex Envelope Representation
 Representation of Modulated Signals
 Spectrum of Bandpass Signals
 Power of Bandpass Signals
 Examples
Huseyin Bilgekul
Eeng360 Communication Systems I
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University

Bandpass Signals
 Energy spectrum of a bandpass signal is
concentrated around the carrier frequency fc.
Bandpass Signal Spectrum

 A time portion of a bandpass signal. Notice the carrier and the baseband envelope.

Time Waveform of
Bandpass Signal

and the baseband source signal is called the modulating signal m(t).  A bandpass waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for frequencies in some band concentrated about a frequency f   f c where fc>>0. Information Signal g (t ) input processing m Carrier circuits s (t ) Transmission medium (channel) r (t ) Communication System Carrier circuits g~ (t ) Signal processing ~ m . Definitions:  A baseband waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin ( f=0) and negligible elsewhere.  This bandpass signal is called the modulated signal s(t).DEFINITIONS The Bandpass communication signal is obtained by modulating a baseband analog or digital signal onto a carrier. fc-Carrier frequency  Modulation is process of imparting the source information onto a bandpass signal with a carrier frequency fc by the introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or both.

frequencies in the baseband signal g(t) are said to be heterodyned up to fc  THEOREM: Any physical bandpass waveform v(t) can be represented as below where fc is the CARRIER frequency and c=2 fc   v  t   Re g  t  e jct  R  t  cos  ct    t  =x  t  cos c t  y  t  sin ct . x(t). Additionally all of them except g(t) are real and g(t) is the Complex Envelope.Complex Envelope Representation  The waveforms g(t) . R(t). g (t )  x(t )  jy (t )  g (t ) e jg ( t )  R (t )e j  t  • g(t) is the Complex Envelope of v(t) • x(t) is said to be the In-phase modulation associated with v(t) • y(t) is said to be the Quadrature modulation associated with v(t) • R(t) is said to be the Amplitude modulation (AM) on v(t) • (t) is said to be the Phase modulation (PM) on v(t) In communications. and  t  are all baseband waveforms.

Generalized transmitter using the AM–PM generation technique. .

.Generalized transmitter using the quadrature generation technique.

c n  cn and using Re     1 1 *       .e.. in particular. 2 2 Thus we have:  v  t   Re  c0  2 cn e jn0 t n 1    cn .negligible magnitudes for n in the vicinity of 0 and. c0=0 Introducing an arbitrary parameter fc .baseband waveform) .Complex Envelope Representation  THEOREM: Any physical bandpass waveform v(t) can be represented by  v  t   Re g  t  e jct  where fc is the CARRIER frequency and c=2 fc PROOF: Any physical waveform may be represented by the Complex Fourier Series v(t )  n   n  cn e jn0t 0  2 / T0 * The physical waveform is real. g(t) . we get   n  j  n0 c  t jc t jc t v  t   Re  g (t )e   Re   2  cn e e     n 1    g (t )  2 cn e j ( n0 c )t n 1 v(t) – bandpass waveform with non-zero spectrum concentrated near f=fc => cn – non-zero for ‘n’ in the range  nf 0  f c => g(t) – has a spectrum concentrated near f=0 (i.

Complex Envelope Representation  Equivalent representations of the Bandpass signals:   v  t   Re g  t  e jct  R  t  cos   ct    t  v  t   x  t  cos  ct  y  t  sin  ct Envelope and Phase form Inphase and Quadrature (IQ) form g  t   x  t   jy  t   g (t ) e jg (t )  R (t )e j (t ) Complex Envelope of v(t )  Converting from one form to the other form x  t   Re  g  t    R (t ) cos  (t ) y  t   Im  g  t    R (t ) sin  (t ) R  t   g (t )  x 2 (t )  y 2 (t ) y (t )  (t )  g (t )  tan 1 ( ) x (t ) Inphase and Quadrature (IQ) Components. Envelope and Phase Components .

The spectrum of the bandpass signal generated from above signal. .Complex Envelope Representation  The complex envelope resulting from x(t) being a computer generated voice signal and y(t) being a sinusoid.

Mapping should suppress as much noise as possible during the recovery. • The g[m] functions that are easy to implement and that will give desirable spectral properties for different modulations are given by the TABLE 4. Modulated signal is just a special application of the bandpass representation.Representation of Modulated Signals  Modulation is the process of encoding the source information m(t) into a bandpass signal s(t). . The modulated signal is given by:  s  t   Re g (t )e jct   c  2 f c • The complex envelope g(t) is a function of the modulating signal m(t) and is given by: g(t)=g[m(t)] where g[• ] performs a mapping operation on m(t).1 • At receiver the inverse function m[g] will be implemented to recover the message.

Xn 1 0 1 0 1 2 g (t ) 0 Ac 2 s (t )  Ac 2 s (t ) Xn Unipolar Line Coder cos(ct) g(t) X Ac .Bandpass Signal Conversion  On off Keying (Amplitude Modulation) of a unipolar line coded signal for bandpass conversion.

Xn 1 0 1 0 1 2 g (t )  2 Ac 2 s (t )  Ac 2 s (t ) Xn Polar Line Coder cos(ct) g(t) X Ac .Bandpass Signal Conversion  Binary Phase Shift keying (Phase Modulation) of a polar line code for bandpass conversion.

Mapping Functions for Various Modulations .

Envelope and Phase for Various Modulations .

 f  f c  2  . Using We get.Spectrum of Bandpass Signals Theorem: If bandpass waveform is represented by Spectrum of Bandpass Signal V ( f )  Where is PSD of g(t)   v  t   Re g  t  e jct  Thus. 1 1 g (t )e jct  g * (t )e  jct 2 2 V ( f )  F  v t         1 1 F g  t  e j c t  F g *  t  e  j c t 2 2 F g * t   G*   f  V( f )    1  G  f  f c   G*   f  f c  2 1 Pv ( f )   Pg  f  f c   Pg   f  f c  4 PSD of Bandpass Signal Proof:  v  t   Re g (t )e jct  and the frequency translation property: 1 G  f .f c   G *  .

Linear operators  1 2 j  * =>Rv     Re g  t  g  t    e 2 or   12 Re  c  1 Rv     Re g *  t  g  t    e jc 2   g  t  g  t    e j 2ct e jc  f c  frequencies in g(t) 1  Re g  t  g  t    e j 2ct e jc 2  but g *  t  g  t     Rg    1 c 2 f  f c   Pg*   f  f c  AC reduces to Rv     Re  Rg    e j   1 PSD => Pv ( f )  F  Rv      Pg  4 Pg*  Pg  f  .      1 j t  Re g  t  g  t    e jct e c   2  .PSD of Bandpass Signals  PSD is obtained by first evaluating the autocorrelation for v(t):    Rv     v  t  v  t     Re g  t  e jct Re g  t    e jc  t    Using the identity Re  c2  Re  c1   1 Re  c2*c1   1 Re  c2 c1  2 where We get Rv     c2  g (t )e jct and c1  g  t    e jc  t    1 j t  Re g *  t  g  t    e  jct e c   2 .

Rv  0   1 g  t 2 2  1   Since  Rv     Re Rg    e jc  2    2   .Evaluation of Power Theorem: Total average normalized power of a bandpass waveform v(t) is  Pv  v  t    2 Pv  f  df  Rv  0    Proof: Pv  v  t   2 1 g  t 2 2   P  f  df v  But Rv     F  Pv  f    1 So. Rv  0    P  fe v j 2 f  df    P  f  df v  Rv  0    1 1 Re  Rg  0    Re g *  t  g  t  0  2 2 or Rv  0   1 Re 2  g  t But g  t  is always real So.

Example : Amplitude-Modulated Signal  Evaluate the magnitude spectrum for an AM signal: Complex envelope of an AM signal: Spectrum of the complex envelope: g  t   Ac  1  m  t  G  f   Ac  f   Ac M  f    AM signal waveform: s  t   Re g (t )e jct  Ac  1  m  t  cos  c t   AM spectrum: S f    G  f  fc  Magnitude spectrum:  1 G  f .f c   G *  . c 2 c  c  2 c  f 0 f 0 . f  f c  2 f   M   f  Because m(t ) is real and   f      f  S( f )  M* 1 Ac    f  f c   M  f  f c     f  f c   M  f  f c  2  S f  and G *   f  f c  do not overlap     1  1  f  f    f  f  . A  A M   2 c  c 2 c   c      1 1  A   f  f   A M   f  f  .

Example : Amplitude-Modulated Signal Spectrum of AM signal. .

Example : Amplitude-Modulated Signal Total average power: 2 2 1 1 2 Ps  g  t   Ac 1  m  t  2 2 1 2  Ac 1  2m  t   m 2  t  2 1 2  Ac  1  2 m  t   m 2  t   2 1 2  Ac  1  m 2  t   If DC value of m(t ) is zero 2 1 2 1 2 1 2  Ac  1  Pm   Ac  Ac Pm  Pc  PSideband 2 2 2  Carrier Power  Sideband Power Where Pm  m 2  t  .

m(t)=0. Ac=500 V.8 j 2 1000t  e  e  j 2 1000 t j2 Fourier transform of m(t): M  f    j 0.8sin(21000t).8sin  2 1000t   fc=1150 kHz.Voltage spectrum of an AM signal Properties of the AM signal are: g(t)=Ac[1+m(t)].4  f  1000  Spectrum of AM signal: S  f   1 Ac    2 f  f c   M  f  f c     f  f c   M  f  f c  Substituting the values of Ac and M(f). we have S  f   250  f  f c   j100  f  f c  1000   j100  f  f c  1000  250  f  f c   j100  f  f c  1000   j100  f  f c  1000  EEE 360 21 .Study Examples SA4-1. 0. m  t   0.4  f  1000   j 0.

PSD for an AM signal Autocorrelation for a sinusoidal signal (A sin w0t ) A2 A2 j0  e  e  j0 Rm     cos  0   2 2 Pm  f   A=0.8 and o  2 1000 A2 A2    f  f 0     f  f 0      f  1000     f  1000   4 4 Autocorrelation for the complex envelope of the AM signal is Rg     g *  t  g  t     Ac2  1  m  t  1  m  t     Ac2  1  m  t   m  t     m  t  m  t     But 1  1. Rg     Ac2  1  Rm    Thus Rg     Ac2  1  Rm    Using Pv ( f )  Pg  f   Ac2  f   Ac2 Pm  f  1  Pg  f  f c   Pg   f  f c  4 PSD for an AM signal: Ps  f   62500  f  f c   10000  f  f c  1000   10000  f  f c  1000  62500  f  f c   10000  f  f c  1000   10000  f  f c  1000  EEE 360 22 .Study Examples SA4-2. m  t   m  t     0. m  t  m  t     Rm    .

05 105   8. Average power for an AM signal Normalized average power  1 2 1 2  0.65 105   3. PEP for an AM signal 1 Normalized PEP: PPEP  norm  2  max g  t  2  1 2 Ac  1  max m  t  2  2 1   5002  1  0.Study Examples SA4-3.1 kW 50 EEE 360 23 .3 kW 50 SA4-4.82  405 kW 2 Actual PEP for this AM voltage signal with a 50 ohm load:  PPEP  actual   PPEP  rms 2 RL 4.8  2  P  V  A 1  V   500 1   s  norm  s  rms  m  rms  c   2  2 2     Alternate method: area under PDF for s(t) 2 2   Ps  norm   Vs  rms   Ps  f  df 2  165 kW  165 kW Actual average power dissipated in the 50 ohm load:  Ps  norm   Vs  rms 2 RL 1.