Rigging Inspection

Safety Training

4 Basic Types of Slings
 Alloy

Chain Slings
 Synthetic Slings
 Wire Rope Slings
 Metal

Mesh Slings

. and shall make such record available for examination.Inspections On All Types Of Slings      Operator Inspection Inspect each time before use.184(e)(3)(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected. no records required Technical Inspection At a minimum once every 12 months Records required  1910.

Alloy Chain Slings .

No Throat Spread No Distorted or Bent Links. Link Wear No Distorted or Bent Couplers Not “Stretched” .Alloy Chain Sling Inspection        Each Time Before Use Tag Must Be Present Tag Must Be Legible Hooks.

. Alloy-steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size..184 (B)    Sling identification. grade. rated capacity and reach Use Chart for checking capacity of sling and sling angle .1910.

Load Capacity Chart .

D RING / HAMMER LOCK .

SLING REACH .

Chain Slings .

Rigging Protection From Cutting or Slipping Softeners. . padding or use of blocking..

184(e)(7)(i) Worn or damaged alloy steel chain slings or attachments shall not be used until repaired. When welding or heat testing is performed.184 (e)(7)(i)   1910. . slings shall not be used unless repaired.1910. reconditioned and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

.HOIST CHAIN IS GRADE 8 / CASE HARDEN Sling Chain is Grade 80 Will Stretch .

10c Chapter 10-1 Hooks 10-1.1. damaged or malfunctioning latch ( if provided) .2.SLING LATCH’S    PER B30.2 (4) Inspection Latch engagement.

For additional information. use and Inspection The life and strength of any Sling chains slings depends on proper inspection.9 and OSHA 1910. refer to ANSI B30. Any of the factors listed here can reduce the load the chain will hold:  Acceleration in rate of load application can produce dangerous overloading.as the angle decreases. the working load of the sling will increase. .184  Use  To protect both operator and materials.  Variation in the angle of the load to the sling . inspect chain and attachments  Do not exceed working load limit.Care. . observe these precautions when using chain slings:  Before use. maintenance and use.

120).        Free chain of all twists. Do not drop load on chains. Center load in hooks.   . For overhead lifting. Balance all loads.                     Match the size and working load limit of                                   such as hooks or rings to the attachments size and working load limit of the chain. hook latches must not support load. Use                 pads around sharp corners. Avoid sudden jerks when lifting and lowering. knots and kinks.100. avoid tipping of loads. use only alloy chain and attachments (grade 80.

INSPECTION  Inspect each link for these conditions  Nicks or gouges. Cuts.  Excessive wear at bearing points.  Bends or distortions in hooks  Rust or corrosion  Uneven lengths when legs are hanging free                                                                     . burns. heat damage.  Stretch.

makeshift fasteners formed from bolts. or other non standard attachments Do not use field fabricated hooks on sling chains Hook the ends of all empty chains on the hoist hook or bull ring . rods.Inspection of chain     Do not weld or perform local repairs on chain slings Do not use homemade links.

0 3/8 5/64 (.531) .171) 13/64 (.5 7/32 - 7.734) 32.0 9/64 10/64 (.0 7/8 12/64 (.0 3/4 11/64 (.0 5/8 9/64 (.156) 22.187) 47/64 (.171) 40/64 (.250) 58/64 (.906)                                                                      Minimum thick-ness allowable at (inches) link ends (inches)* 11/64 (.203) 18/64 (.625) 26.0 9/32 3/64 (.0 1/2 7/64 (.109) 16.0 1 16/64 (.046) 10.343) 27/64 (.281 22/64 (.140) 20.SLING WEAR MM Inche s Maximum allowable wear (inches) 5.078) 13.421) 34/64 (.

and (D) experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances.184(e)(3)(i) In addition to the inspection required by paragraph (d) of this section. a through periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis. (B) severity of service conditions. to be determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use. . (C) nature of lifts being made.Inspection required one time a year    Inspections 1910. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.

Comparisons of Chain       Grade 40 Steel Transport Chain 1/2” Links 9200# Capacity Horizontal Grade 80 Alloy Steel Chain 1/2“ Links 12.000# Capacity@90° .

Requirements    Rated to capacity of weakest component No makeshift links formed from rods. or bolts No mechanical coupling links .

Requirements  No screw links  UNLESS APPROVED FOR OVERHEAD LIFTING .

.Alloy Chain Sling Use   Rated load must be reduced when used at temperatures in excess of 600° F Consult sling manufacturer before use in chemical environments.

WEB & POLYESTER SLINGS .

INSPECTION OF POLYESTER SLINGS    (A) INITIAL INSPECTION.BEFORE USE .INSPECTION REQUIRED. (C) PERIODIC INSPECTION-TO BE CONDUCTED AT LEAST MONTHLY. . (B) FREQUENT INSPECTION-TO BE MADE BY A DESIGNATED PERSON EACH TIME THE ROUND SLING IS USED.

Use softeners or padding on corners. User must look at the Individual Sling Capacity Tag to determine Safe Lifting Capacity of that sling. If the Tag is not readable or is missing. it has no set standard like wire rope does. Do not use it! Inspect sling before each days use. and as often as necessary during the day to assure safety of sling! Sharp edges can slice a sling in two without warning as the load is tensioned.Synthetic Slings Sling capacity varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. .

vapors. Do not use in area where temperatures exceed 180° F.184(i)(9) . are present. liquids. 1910. mists. acids.Synthetic Web Slings Use    Not to be used in any area where fumes. sprays.

The weight of the load shall be within the rated capacity of the polyester round sling. Select a polyester round sling having suitable characteristics for the type of load . Consider load angle. hitch and environment. Polyester round slings shall not be loaded in excess of the rated capacity.OPERATION OF POLYESTER ROUND SLINGS    DETERMINE WEIGHT OF LOAD. .

AND NEVER ON THE FITTING.Polyester slings  POLYESTER ROUND SLINGS WITH FITTING WHICH ARE USED IN A CHOKING HITCH SHALL BE SUFFICIENT LENTH TO ASSURE THAT THE CHOKING ACTION IS ON THE ROUND SLING. .

Synthetic Slings .

Sling Choker Adjustments .

ENSURE THE SLINGS FITTING IS THE PROPER SIZE TO FIT ON THE CRANE HOOKS BOWL. AND OR OTHER ATTACHMENTS. .POLYESTER SLINGS   POLYESTER SLINGS USED IN A BASKET HITCH SHALL HAVE THE LOAD BALANCED TO PREVENT SLIPPAGE.

You may need two slings to balance the load .Basket Hitch “Basket” .loading with the sling passed under the load and both ends on the hook .

OR JOINED BY KNOTING. .POLYSTER SLING  POLYESTER ROUND SLINGS SHALL NOT BE TWISTED.TIED IN KNOTS. LENGTHENED. SHORTEN.

POLYESTER SLINGS   POLYESTER ROUND SLING SHALL NOT BE DRAGGED ON THE FLOOR OR OVER AN ABRASIVE SURFACE. POLYESTER ROUND SLINGS SHALL ALWAYS BE PROTECTED FROM BEING CUT BY SHARP CORNERS.SHARP EDGES. .PROTRUSIONS.

POLYESTER SLINGS   POLYESTER SLING SHLL NOT BE PULLED FROM UNDER LOADS WHEN LOADS ARE RESTING ON THEM POLYESTER ROUND SLING THAT APPEAR TO BE DAMAGED ARE NOT TO BE USED UNLESS INSPECTED AND ACCEPTED. .

PERSONNEL SHALL BE ALERT FOR POSSIBLE SNAGGING OF THE POLYESTER ROUND SLING . WHEN LIFTING WITH OR WITHOUT THE LOAD.POLYESTER SLINGS   POLYESTER SLINGS SHALL BE HITCHED IN A MANNER PROVIDING CONTROL OF THE LOAD.

TAGS AND LABELS SHOULD BE KEPT CLEAR FROM THE LOAD AND CHOKE POINTS AVOID ALL SHOCK LOADS.POLYESTER SLING     TWISTING THE LEGS SHALL BE AVOIDED ONLY POLYESTER SLING WITH LEGIBLE IDENTIFICATION TAGS SHALL BE USED. .

ABRASIVE WEAR.OR SNAGS THAT EXPOSE THE CORE FIBERS OF THAT SLING .EMBEDDED PARTICLES.CHARRING OR WELD SPATTER ON ANY PART OF SLING HOLES. TEARS.POLYESTER SLING REMOVAL FROM SERVICE    REMOVE FROM SERVICE IF IDENTIFICATION IS MISSING OR UNREADABLE MELTED.CUTS.

 SLINGS THAT HAVE KNOTS IN THEM. STRETCHED OR DISTORTED IN ANY WAY.POLYESTER SLING TO REMOVE FROM SERVICE  BROKEN OR WORN STICHING IN THE COVER WHICH EXPOSES THE FIBER CORE  FITTING WHEN DAMAGED. ACID OR ALKALI BURNS  .

punctures. and legible. or cuts No broken or worn stitches No distortion of fittings No exposed “tattletales” . No snags.       Synthetic Web Sling Inspection Inspect each time before use Tag present. tears. No Burns or melting any type.

Consult Rope Manufacturer if iwrc ropes used above 400° F or below -60° F Consult Sling manufacturer Before utilizing in any chemically active environments. .Wire Rope Sling Use    Fiber Core ropes permanently removed from service if exposed to temperatures in excess of 180 ° F.

and legible Broken wires Wear or scraping Kinks.Wire Rope Slings Inspection        Tag present. Bird Caging. or any distortion of the rope.Crushing. Heat damage End attachment. or Hook damage No U-Bolt Clips utilized .

Wire Rope Capacities

D/d Ratios

D / d ratio is the diameter around which
the sling is bent divided by the body
diameter of the sling

Safety Factors
To guard against failure of a wire rope in
service, the actual load on the rope should
only be a fraction of the Capacity to be
lifted.
The safety factor includes reduced capacity of
the rope below it’s stated breaking strength
due to wear, fatigue, corrosion, abuse.

  Wire Rope Core Monitor Reduction in Diameter .

How to measure a wire rope .

Maximum Broken Wires 10 per lay. 5 per Strand .

Wire Rope Construction .

crushing.1910.  1910. .184(f)(5)(iii) Kinking.184  1910.184(f)(5)(ii) Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. bird caging or any other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure.

184(f)(5)(vii) Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.184(f)(5)(vi) Hooks that have been opened more than 5 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 0 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook. 1910. . 1910.184(f)(5)(iv) Evidence of heat damage.Remove Rope From Service     1910.184(f)(5)(v) End attachments that are cracked. deformed or worn. 1910.

and then answer three questions: 1. Is horizontal reach adequate? Choose a sling body type which will best support the load while providing adequate rated capacity. Is capacity adequate for this lift? 2.Sling checks before lift     Is the lifting device adequate? Check the placard on the crane or hoist. . Will it lift high enough? 3.

Protecting Rigging From Damage or Environment Rigging components are expensive to buy and to replace! Use them properly and store them properly! Keep wire rope slings lubricated and all rigging stored out of the weather. Knots tied in rigging reduces the strength by 50% or more! . Treat the rigging as though your life depended on it! Because it does if it fails! Don’t use makeshift rigging or attempt to repair any rigging components.

874 LBS ^ << 707 LBS LAF X LOAD ÷ LEGS=TENSION .Load Angle Factors L A F X LOAD DIVIDED BY LEGS = STRESS ON SLING LEGS ^ 2.

414 LBS DIVIDED BY 2 = 707 LBS PER LEG 30 Deg 2.414 X 1.000 LBS DIVIDED BY 4 = 500 LBS PER LEG .000 85 deg 1.000 DIVIDED BY 2 = 500 LBS PER LEG 60 Deg 1.490 2 LEGED SLING 90 Deg 1.000 LBS = 2.414 40 deg 1.000 X 1.000 LBS DIVIDED BY 2 = 1.861 10 deg 5.000 X 1.742 30 deg 2.000 LBS = 2.035 70 deg 1.490 LBS DIVIDED BY 2 = 5.221 50 deg 1.LOAD ANGLE FACTOR                                Load angle factor = L A F X LOAD DIVIDED BY LEGS = STRESS ON SLING LEGS Sling Angle load Angle Factor 90 deg 1.115 55 deg 1.364 20 deg 2.000 LBS = 1.000 LBS PER LEG 5 Deg 11.000 LBS = 1.924 15 deg 3.155 X 1.745 LBS PER LEG 3 LEGED SLING 90 DEG 1.015 75 deg 1.064 65 deg 1.000 LBS = 1.155 LBS DIVIDED BY 2 = 577.000 LBS = 11.004 80 deg 1.104 L A F X LOAD DIVIDED BY LEGS = STRESS ON THE SLING LEG 60 deg 1.000 LBS DIVIDED BY 3 = 333 LBS PER LEG 4 LEGED SLING 30 DEG 2.305 45 deg 1.000 25 deg 2.155 35 deg 1.747 5 deg 11.000 X 1.490 X 1.000 X 1.000 LBS = 1.50 LBS PER LEG 45 Deg 1.

and Not to be used for lifting .Open Eyebolts Not Alloy.

12 3000 5/8 . . Minimum of 2x of shank in part to be lifted.Un-Shouldered Eyebolts Unshouldered Max Load Lbs. -Thread Size Straight Pull 90 1/4 .16 1400 7/16 .20 500 5/16 .10 6000 7/8 .14 2000 1/2 .13 2600 9/16 .7 10000 1-1/4 .9 7000 1-8 9000 1-1/8 .11 4000 3/4 .18 900 3/8 .7 15000 1-1/2 .6 19600 Alloy. No Angular loading allowed 90° only.

.

. Angular lifts will significantly lower maximum loads Angular lifts must never be more than a 45 degree pull.13 2600 650 9/16 .20 500 125 5/16 .11 4000 1000 3/4 – 10 6000 1500 7/8 – 9 7000 1750 1–8 9000 2250 1-1/8 – 7 10000 2500 1-1/4 – 7 15000 3750 1-1/2 – 6 19600 4900 Alloy only.16 1400 350 7/16 .18 900 225 3/8 . Maximum load rating for eyebolts are based on a straight vertical lift in a gradually increasing manner.12 3000 750 5/8 . Shoulder must be supported for any angular loading. Minimum of 2x of shank in part to be lifted.Shouldered Eyebolts 45° Thread Straight 45 Deg. Pull Pull Size 90 45 1/4 .14 2000 500 1/2 .

Rated Load . Must be designed iaw ANSI B30. or magnetic devices. vacuum.   Below the Hook Lifting Devices Anything which does not fall under the slings category is a below the hook lifting fixture to include structural.20 Must display the following Manufacturers Name and Addressinformation Serial# Lifter Weight if over 100# or 45kg.mechanical.

Below the Hook Lifting Devices Inspection   Operator Daily before use Periodic at least annually with records .

Below the Hook B30. FOR LOAD BEARING STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS.BASED ON YIELD STRENTH. WITH A MINIMUM DESIGN FACTOR OF 3.20  A LIFTER SHALL BE DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND THE FORCES IMPOSED BY ITS RATED LOAD. .

Slings .

.Rigging  Use approved slings & safety rules for all rigging jobs.

One basic rule always applies: Always know . as well as techniques employed.. never guess.RIGGING TIPS  . Each lift may be divided into three parts. Prevailing work rules and government regulations place full responsibility for proper performance upon the rigger.. so it is his duty to be familiar with the condition and capability of all tools and equipment used. .

check the placard. The Lifting Device .Rigging rule # 1  1. . and its condition. When was it last inspected? If in doubt about capacity.Know its capability and limitations.

.Here is where the rigger can exercise ingenuity.Rule # 2  2. The Hitch .. but it's also the easiest place to make a mistake.

Rule # 3
 3.

The Load - The weight
must be known. But you
must also protect the load
from possible damage by
the slings ... and protect the
slings from damage by the
load.

RIGGING
 Before

you select a sling for
a specific lift, determine the
most effective hitch to do the
job, protect the load, and
protect the sling. One of
three basic hitches will
usually do the job.

Basket Hitch
“Basket” - loading with the sling passed
under the load and both ends on the hook
or a single master link.

Chocker “Choker” – loading with the sling passed through one eye and suspended by the other. .

.90 Deg / Vertical “Vertical” / 90 Deg – loading with the the load suspended vertically on a single part or leg of the sling.

as well as the length of sling that will be needed. Lifting height. overhead clearance and hook travel will affect choice of hitch and length of sling .The Hitch  The type of hitch you select may determine the type of sling body that will best do the job.

Check Lifting Height for proper Clearance .

. always pull on line with the bolt axis.RIGGING When attaching a sling to eye bolts.

RIGGING  When hitching to bolts screwed into or attached to a load.  You may need to brace the sling  . a side pull may break the bolts.

 Use spreader bars and corner protectors to prevent damage to contents. be sure load can withstand side pressure as tension is applied to sling. .Rigging Boxes / Crates  When lifting crates or wooden boxes with a basket hitch.

. between the hitch and the load..RIGGING  You can reduce the angle of a choke with a wooden block. This also increases the angle between the two legs to improve sling efficiency. or blocks.

the strands may unlay and the rope's capacity will be reduced .Tag Line  Anytime a load is lifted beyond arm's reach with a single-part load line or straight eye and eye sling. use a tagline to prevent load rotation. If a wire rope is permitted to rotate.

and then answer three questions: 1.Rigging checks before lift     Is the lifting device adequate? Check the placard on the crane or hoist. Is capacity adequate for this lift? 2. Will it lift high enough? 3. . Is horizontal reach adequate? Choose a sling body type which will best support the load while providing adequate rated capacity.

Handling characteristics needed for rigging ( Do you need a tag line?) 4. (Outside Dia of sheave to outside Dia of rope) 3. Protect your slings from damage. Proper D/d Ratio. 2. What is the Lifting capacity needed.The proper choice will provide    1. .

Minimal damage to the load. .  Use a shackle in the sling eye during a choke to protect sling body against excessive distortion.5.

Proper Shackle Use .

 Always put pin through sling eye rather than against the sling body since the sling movement of the sling body could rotate pin. causing it to come loose. .

a choke is more effective than a basket hitch to prevent unbalance and slipping of the load in the sling .Lifting a Bundle  When lifting a bundled load with a single sling near the center of gravity.

with identical previous loading experience.Rigging  When rigging two or more straight slings as a bridle. select identical sling constructions of identical length . Two basket hitches can be rigged with two slings to provide better balance for long loads. Normal stretch must be the same for paired slings to avoid overloading individual legs and unbalancing the load during the lift. . Be sure that slings cannot slide toward one another along the load when the lift is made.

Turnbuckles  Turnbuckles must be proof load tested at 2 times the SWL and tagged or marked  Inspect Turnbuckles for cracks and bends in frame Check for Thread damage & bent rods  .

Turnbuckles .

What is the sling angle? d. Where is the center of gravity? c.Rigging Selection 3. Will there be side loading? e. Are the Working Load Limits Adequate? a. Capacity/Type of the rigging to be used? . What is the weight of the load? b.