O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination

Basic Information

O/C E/F Relay &
Time Coordination

Basic
Information

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2

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
General Circuit Diagram

P1

200/1 Amp
150 Amp

P2

150 Amp
150 Amp

C71
S2

0.75 Amp S1

R Ph O/C (51R)
C11
E/F (51N)

0.75 Amp S1

C31
0.0 Amp

0.75 Amp S1

B Ph O/C (51B)
C51

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
R Ph CT
Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

Y Ph CT

Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

B Ph CT

Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

Yard MB Wiring

1S1R
1S2R
1S3R
1S1Y
1S2Y
1S3Y
1S1B
1S2B
1S3B
2S1R
2S2R
2S3R
2S1Y
2S2Y
2S3Y
2S1B
2S2B
2S3B
3S1R
3S2R
3S3R
3S1Y
3S2Y
3S3Y
3S1B
3S2B
3S3B

A11

A31

A51
A71
C11

C31
C51
C71
D71

D11

D31

D51

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
R Ph CT
Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

Y Ph CT

Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

B Ph CT

Core-3 Core-2 Core-1

Yard MB Wiring

1S1R
1S2R
1S3R
1S1Y
1S2Y
1S3Y
1S1B
1S2B
1S3B
2S1R
2S2R
2S3R
2S1Y
2S2Y
2S3Y
2S1B
2S2B
2S3B
3S1R
3S2R
3S3R
3S1Y
3S2Y
3S3Y
3S1B
3S2B
3S3B

A11

A31

A51
A71
C11

C31
C51
C71
D71

D11

D31

D51

4

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Terminal Diagram of MiComP141

5

6

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Single Line to Ground Fault
200/1 Amp

P1

1500 Amp

P2

C71
S2

7.5 Amp

S1

R Ph O/C (51R)
C11
E/F (51N)

S1

C31
7.5 Amp

S1

B Ph O/C (51B)
C51

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Electromagnetic Induction relays
50%
75%
100%
125%
150%
200%

Φ1

Φ2

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Relay Operation Time - 1
E/F PSM 30% i.e. 0.3 Amp
E/F Relay Current 7.5 Amp
E/F Relay Current is 7.5/0.3 = 25 Times
its operating current
From Graph for 25 Times relay operating
current for TMS = 0.15 relay time of
operation would be @ 0.35 Sec
O/C PSM 100%
O/C Relay Current 7.5 Amp
It is 7.5 times relay operating current
From graph for 7.5 Times relay operating
current and for TMS = 0.1 time of
operation for the relay would be 0.35 Sec
( Zoom out Graph)

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Relay Operation Time - 2
Actually our problem is to decide relay settings and not relay time of
operations as shown previously
Hence Unknowns are
Relay PSM
Relay TMS
Whereas known facts are
Relay placement and purpose of use
Relay current during fault ( i.e. CT secondary current during fault. )
Relay desired time of operation.
General Steps
1) Decide PSM
2) Find out fault current
3) Find out multiple of relay set current as per decided PSM in step-1
4) Find out time of operation for above multiple of current and TMS=1 using
relay characteristic curve
5) Decide relay time of operation as per protection needs
6) Find out TMS = Required Time of operation /Time of operation with TMS =1

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination

10

Basic Information – Selection of PSM
E/F PSM generally selected as 30% ( Other than 30% settings may also be selected but about this
discussed somewhere else in the presentation)
For O/C PSM is selection depends upon place and purpose of use for example –
1.Transformer O/C protection
a) Transformer HV or LV side O/C relay PSM settings should be in commensuration with transformer
full load current and respective CT ratio such that PSM = T/F Full load current / CT ratio
( Generally expressed in %)
b) For example for a 25 MVA transformer HV side full load current is 109 A if HV CT ratio is 200/1
Amp then PSM =109/200 ≈ 55% ( exact value 54.5%)
c) For old type numerical relay it was not possible to go as near as possible to value calculated from
above formula due to large steps available
d) Under such condition it is decision as per local condition to select higher or lower nearest PSM
e) In above example it is customary to select 50%, however due to this selection there is apparent
loss of about 10% capacity of the T/F
f) It is also possible to select 75% but load on transformer is to be monitored carefully ( and manually
)
2.For 220-132 kV feeder
Here generally it is customary to select relay PSM as pera) Line conductor allowable loading limit
b) CT primary normal current
c) Substations capacity/normal load feed by the line
d) Considering above facts it is very common to select 100% PSM for 132kV lines with CT ratio 400/1
Amp
e) For 220kV lines with CT ratio 800/1 amp and conductor 0.4 ACSR or 0.525 AAAC it is 100%
a)For 33-11kV feeder
a) As per local feeder condition, load pattern and needs ranging between 50% to 100%

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Relay Operation Time - 3
Desired time of operation will depend upon
a) Equipment being protected
b) Time discrimination from down stream protection (150 ms – 250 ms)
c) Time of operation of main protection etc.



For transformer LV side protection it is common to adopt 250 ms as
operating time.
This is so as to have 150 ms time discrimination from 100 ms relay
time of operation for lower (feeder) protection.
When relays are used as backup protection of 132kV lines it’s time
of operation shall be equal to Z-2 time of operation (300 – 350 ms).
Once these two things decided there remains only mathematical
part

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Worked out Example
132 kV

25 MVA

33 kV
400/1 A

400/1 A

33kV Bus fault level
1Ph 170 MVA , 3Ph 210 MVA
Relay current during fault
1Ph 7.43 Amp, 3 Ph 9.18 Amp
Relay PSM
E/F 30%, O/C 100 %
Multiple of relay current
E/F 25, O/C 9.
Time of operation with TMS = 1
E/F 2.2 s, O/C 3.0 Sec
Desired time of operation
E/F 250 ms, O/C 250 ms
TMS
E/F 0.114, O/C 0.083
Roundup to
E/F 0.125, O/C 0.1

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
More Information

O/C E/F Relay &
Time Coordination

More
Information

13

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Introduction

• Fuse wire is simplest protection
• Fusing ampere of copper wire of diameter ‘d’
expressed in ‘Cm’ is given by the formula A =
2530*d3/2
• Time taken by fuse to blow off depends up on
fusing amperes

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Introduction
SWG

D in mm

D in Inch

Amp

Fusing
Amp

Fusing Amp by
Formula

40

0.122

0.0048

1.5

3

3.41

39

0.132

0.0052

2.5

4

3.84

38

0.152

0.006

3

5

4.74

37

0.173

0.0681

3.5

6

5.76

36

0.193

0.0076

4.5

7

6.78

35

0.213

0.0084

5

8

7.86

34

0.234

0.00921

5.5

9

9.06

33

0.254

0.01

6

10

10.24

32

0.274

0.0108

7

11

11.47

31

0.29464

0.0116

8

12

12.80

30

0.315

0.0124

8.5

13

14.14

29

0.345

0.0136

10

16

16.21

28

0.376

0.0148

12

18

18.45

27

0.416

0.0164

13

23

21.47

26

0.457

0.018

14

27

24.72

25

0.508

0.02

15

30

28.97

24

0.559

0.022

17

33

33.44

23

0.61

0.024

20

38

38.12









For a wire of length L carrying current I
and diameter d heat produced is
H = I2 R
H = I2σ (L/A)
H = I2σ ( L/(πd2/4))
Heat dissipated = K’ (πd)L ( i.e.
proportional to surface area where K’
is constant of proportionality)
Temperature will be steady state if
heat generated is equal heat
dissipated or
I2σ ( L/(πd2/4)) = K’ (πd)L
I2σ ( 1/(d2/4)) = K’ d
I2 = K’’ d3
I = K d 3/2
And by experiments for normal
ambient temperature value of K for
copper is determined as 2530 for d
expressed in Cm.

More

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Protection of transformer by a fuse
For T/F with normal load of 100 Amp
Fuse
Current

200
430
1200
1800
2800

Fusing
Time
10000
5
0.4
0.2
0.1

Transformer
Safe
Safe
Operatio
Operation
Current n Time
Time With
as per
FOS 2.5
IEEE
200
1800
720
300
300
120
475
60
24
630
30
12
1130
10
4
2500
2
0.8

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Simplest Protection – Fuse

• These
characteristic
graphs are
generally double
log graph
• This is due to
including from very
small to very large
values on both axis

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Simplest Protection - Fuse

• Log scale graph are
use full tool where
range of values varies
very widely
• This variation in range
is generally 10,000
times
• It does not affect
overall accuracy of
selecting proper value
manually

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination

• General mathematical formula for time
characteristic of the relay as per IEC
Standards
K
Time Of Operation = ---------------------

( ( Is/Ib) α -

1

)

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination

• General mathematical formula for time
characteristic of the relay shown on
previous slide, with parameter values for
different curves are shown here
Characteristic

α

K

Normal Inverse

0.02

0.14

Very Inverse

1

13.5

Extremely Inverse

2

80

Long Time Inverse

1

120

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Use of log scale-1

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Use of Log Scale-2

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Use of Log Scale-3

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Use of Log Scale-4

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Transformer – Protection – Damage Curve



Damages to the equipment due to fault
current flowing through it are mainly due to
heating effect of the current ( I2Rt)
Hence fuse time characteristic initially
suited very well to the equipments in the
power system
This figure shows protection of transformer
with the help of relay and breaker
This also indicates how inverse
characteristic of O/C Relay is suitable to
protection of power system equipments
( More about Transformer Damage Curves)
( More about this figure )

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Transformer – Protection – Damage Curve

Transformer damage curve as per
IEEE 57.109 for class – III
transformers ( 5 MVA to 30 MVA )

26

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Protection of Transformer by O/C Relay

Long Time
Inverse

Extremely Inverse

Normal Inverse

Trafo
Damage
Curve

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
End of More Information

After understanding basics of relay
characteristic curves and its selection
according to protection needs we will
turn to allied information about O/C E//F
relaying
This allied information will prove helpful
in overall understanding about
development of protective relays and its
use in power system

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Basic Information

O/C E/F Relay &
Time Coordination

Allied
Information

29

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Disadvantages of fuses
• Though simple less accurate ( If Rewirable)



Because of previous heating effect
Ambient Temperature
In consistencies in material
Limitations for breaking capacities hence suitable for LV and to
some extent MV

• HRC Fuses



More accurate
Higher rupturing capacities
Requires time for replacement
Suitable for LV and to some extent MV

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Early Development of Protective Schemes

• This simple device (Fuse) played a very
vital role during early development of
power systems
• As the complexity of power system
increased other technique get introduced
like breaker, relay DC battery etc. (How?)

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Early development of power system










History of power system protection dates back nearly to the start of development of power system
it self
In real sense power system started growing due to invention of incandescent lamp by Edison
during 1880
Edison was promoter of DC power system ( Why ? )
General Electric founded by him was main supplier of electricity in Newyork.
Washington first introduced AC system with the advancement in transformer during 1887
During 1890 charls introduced symmetrical component analysis which helped in analyzing 3 ph.
Power system and there by possible to design larger machines and power systems.
Modern day power system came into existence from 1890
One of the patent of fuse is in the name of Edison
Development of relays breakers and instrument transformers took place during 1890 to 1920 and
modern day protection system came into existence.
And during last century development of power system continuous to be there however main
principles of power system protection are 3S and 1R remained same.
Development of relays breakers and instrument transformers took place during 1890 to 1920 and
modern day protection system came into existence.

And during last century development of power system
continuous to be there however main principles of power
system protection are 3S and 1R remained same.

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
General Requirements of Protective Scheme

• For any protective device following Functional
Characteristic are important.
– Sensitive
– Selectivity
– Speed
– Reliability
• ( Note:- 3 S & 1 R )
• As a improvement over simple fuses (in above
areas) other protective devices get developed
with the advancement of power system

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
3S & 1R





Sensitivity is that property of protection system which enables it to
distinguish between fault and no fault condition very correctly.
As if we say that some animals are more sensitive than humans to
natural disasters like earthquake.
Where as selectivity is that property of the power system which
enables it to isolate only the faulty part from healthy part.
In this sense differential protection is most selective protection
Once the fault detected by SENSITIVE system and area to be
disconnected detected by SELECTIVE system then there comes the
SPEED.
This faulty section should be get cleared as early as possible.
For EHV system Faults are once in blue moon. Hence this all above
said things should happen RELIABELY even after 5-10 years from
design and commissioning of the protection system.

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Changing Trend In Protective Relaying

Protection relay is a tool for
protection engineer
During last 30 years relay
operating principles changed
very drastically
– Electromagnetic Relays
– Static Relays
– Digital Relays
– Numerical Relays
Though it is not required to
design a relay or repair a relay
at site it is customary to have
some working knowledge of
these relays for better
understanding and use of it

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Electromagnetic Induction relays

36

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Static Relays

37

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Digital Relay

38

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination

Functions Available in Numerical O/C Relay

Numerical Relay

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Introduction
A

B

C

R3

R2

R1

500 ms

350 ms

110 ms

1) Consider a representative part of a power system as shown above.
2) It is being protected by over current relay
3) Typical expected time of operation for over current relays are as shown
4) In next couple of hour we will see
a) What is mean by relay characteristics curve
b) How relay characteristic curve suites our protection needs
c) How it helps us in deciding relay time of operation

d) Workout relay settings so that they shall
operate at expected time
e) Methodology being adopted for selective tripping by over current
relay including directional relay

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Introduction

S

S

A

B

C

R3

R2

R1

40 sec.

25 sec.

10 sec.

B

C

R3

R2

R1

180 ms

220 ms

200 ms

R3

R2

R1

500 ms

350 ms

110 ms

A

S

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Study of Time Co-ordination and its role in design of protection scheme.

• Over Current and Earth Fault Protection is
used for
– Protecting a equipment
– Selective tripping of faulty section of the
power system
– Backing up the main protection

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Role of Over Current Relay in Protecting the Equipment

• It is obvious that over current protective system should
act and interrupt the fault current before to damage of
equipment due to fault current through it.
• Power system equipments include Line, Isolator, CT,
Breaker, Transformer
• Obviously Transformer is most costliest and delicate (for
fault currents) equipment first we will consider its
damage curve and decide parameters of protection
system so that it should act fast enough to protect the
transformer
• This can be ascertained with the help of Damage Curve
of the transformer and time-current curve of the
protective system

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Role of Over Current Protection in Selective Tripping

• It is obvious that only that part of the power system
should get disconnected where the fault exists
• Hence proper time co-ordination should be there so as to
let the down stream protection should act fast enough
and up-stream protection should give sufficient time for
down stream protection to act
• Otherwise un-necessary larger area get affected

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Backup Protection

• When ever main protection fails to separate the
faulty section backup protection take up this role
• As such there is inherent time delay in operation
of backup protection
• This backup protection can be employed in main
protection itself as additional function, but
invariably it is employed as a separate relay to
ensure it’s operation even if failure of
quantities/links which are common to both
functions such as–


DC Source
PT supply
Relay hardware
Main CTs

45

O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Back up protection

• EHV line faults are of sever nature from
power system security and stability point
of view. Hence must be cleared
instantaneously
• For this purpose distance relays which
operates instantaneously (Z1) are
employed for protection of EHV lines
• For protection of EHV transformers
differential and REF relays are employed
which are also instantaneous

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O/C E/F Relay & Time Coordination
Backup Relay Time Coordination

X

Y

M
E

A

C
F

Z