Analisis Dampak lingkungan
dan Keselamatan Transportasi
(Traffic Impact and
Transportation Safety

si-6147 andalalin - 01


Lingkup Kuliah
• Analisis dampak lalu lintas,
• Analisis dampak lingkungan akibat
sektor transportasi,
• Metoda analisis dampak lingkungan,
• Metoda keselamatan lalu lintas jalan,
keselamatan angkutan umum dan kereta
api, keselamatan transportasi udara,
dan keselamatan transportasi laut..
si-6147 andalalin - 01


• Highway Safety Manual, American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO), 2010.
(Pustaka utama)
• FDOT, Site Impact Handbook, Florida Department of
Transportation, 1998. (Pustaka utama)
• Taylor, M.A.P., Young, W., dan Bonsall, P.W., Understanding
Traffic Systems: Data, Analysis, and Presentation, Avebury,
1996. (Pustaka utama)
• Rodrigues, C., and Cusick, S., Commercial Aviation Safety,
McGraw Hill, 2012. (Pustaka pendukung)
• Kristiansen, S., Maritime Transportation: Safety Management
and Risk Analysis, Elsevier, 2005. (Pustaka pendukung)
• Ogden, K.W., Safer Roads: A Guide to Road Safety
Engineering, 1996. (Pustaka pendukung)
si-6147 andalalin - 01


Site impact is defined as follows Site Impact : represents any effort to prepare an analysis of or conduct review of an analysis prepared by another party to estimate and quantify the specific transportationrelated impacts of a development proposal. as will be defined later. on any affected roadway system as determined by the procedures established in this Handbook and the specific type of review being conducted. si-6147 andalalin . The Department’s impact assessment may be limited to the State Highway System (SHS) or. regardless of who initiates the development proposal. on the surrounding transportation network.01 4 .

Need and Purpose • The types of site impact analysis and reviews refer to the need to evaluate the impacts of proposed development on the State Transportation System resulting from the development process. • The scope and complexity based on the governing regulations. unique characteristics of the proposed development type and the proximity of the development to the SHS. • The purpose of a site impact analysis and review is to assess potential traffic impacts. and maintain a balance between land use and the quality of transportation services. si-6147 andalalin . plan for the transportation requirements of future development. identify acceptable mitigation strategies.01 5 .

01 6 . • Transportation improvements increase capacity in large increments while traffic demand increases slowly. Land Use Transportation Cycl development patterns si-6147 andalalin . mostly through small changes in land Figure 1.• Development often impacts the transportation system’s performance. • This causes a need to improve nearby transportation facilities.

Why is Site Impact Analysis Needed? • primarily concerned with protecting the integrity of the transportation system for the general public and • to avoid degradation of both the regional and local transportation networks.01 7 . si-6147 andalalin .

local government comprehensive planning and concurrency requirements. zoning.A Number Of Reasons To Perform Site Impact Analysis And Reviews.01 8 . 4.Provide a consistent system for managing mobility. 1.Provide recommendations for effective site transportation planning. 2.Provide a method for analyzing the effects of development on transportation in conjunction with access management.Managing traffic and land use development within the context of metropolitan transportation planning. congestion and air quality 3. permitting or other requirements. si-6147 andalalin .

si-6147 andalalin .Ensure that proposed developments impacting a state facility are operating at an acceptable level of service (LOS).Ensure that the proposed development is consistent with local government comprehensive plan 9.Establish a framework for the negotiation of mitigation measures for the impacts created by development.A Number Of Reasons To Perform Site Impact Analysis And Reviews. 6.Ensure consistency between the proposed development and the access management requirements including driveway and/or median standards. 7.Ensure that the proposed development is consistent with local zoning and development regulations. 8.01 9 . 5.

01 10 .When Should Site Impact Analysis Be Performed? • Dependent upon the magnitude and intensity of the proposed development and its proximity to the Transportation System. and to ensure technical accuracy with regard to the analysis performed. particularly the FIHS. si-6147 andalalin . • Department’s assistance in the review of the analysis. • The primary goal in site impact reviews is to protect the integrity of the SHS. The Department is not precluded from requesting a site impact analysis based on other transportation impact concerns.

Developments that generate less than 100 peak-hour trips generally should not require a site impact study.01 11 . 3. si-6147 andalalin . a site impact study should be considered. 2. If the proposed development is projected to generate 100 or more peak-hour trips. 1. but should be reviewed for consistency with driveway and access management standards.Guidelines To Determine When A Site Impact Analysis May Be Needed. Table 1 provides some guidance on the land use type and intensities that generate at least 100 peak-hour trips.

• Driveway volumes and consistency with driveway and access management standards should be reviewed at a minimum. • If a development generates at least 100 but less than 500 peak-hour trips. an abbreviated analysis procedure may be proposed.Guidelines To Determine When A Site Impact Analysis May Be Needed. Examples of developments that may generate this amount of traffic are small subdivisions. • Developments in this category are usually evaluated using concurrency management system requirements. small hotels and small commercial developments. • Table 1 provides some guidance on the land use types and intensities that generate more than 100 peak-hour trips and less than 500 peak-hour trips.01 12 . si-6147 andalalin .

450 SF and 9 drive-ins 133/1 78 rooms 711/944 rooms 43.350 SF 2.073 units 5.5 Fast Food Restaurant with Drive-In (GFA) Convenience Store with Gas (GFA)4.250 SF 497.500 SF 70.000 SF 134.750 SF6 13.150 SF N/A 463.000 SF 126.850 SF or 24 pumps 2.250 SF 65. Examples of Land Use Thresholds Based on Trip Generation Characteristics 1.2.000 SF 668.375 SF or 4 pumps 6.400 SF5 383.272 units 179 units 1.7 Banks with Drive-In (GFA) Hotel/Motel General Office Medical/Dental Office Research and Development Light Industrial Manufacturing 500 Peak-Hour Trips 92 units 547 units 163 units 920 units 178 units 1.700 SF 1.3 Land Use 100 Peak-Hour Trips Residential: Single-Family Apartments Condominiums/Townhouses Mobile Home Park Shopping Center (GLA)4.01 13 .450 SF 26.300 SF and 1 drive-in 11.Table 1.900 SF si-6147 andalalin .

A detailed site impact analysis should be considered if the development generates 500 or more peak-hour trips or meets the following criteria si-6147 andalalin .01 14 .

a detailed site impact analysis is required. a detailed site impact analysis is required.01 15 . • The development contributes 200 VPHPL or more during the peak period on a freeway (Interstate. • The criteria also applies to ramp intersections and ramp segments with more than 200 VPHPL. Turnpike or other facility with full control of access). experience and engineering judgement.Criteria • If the development contributes 75 or more vehicles per hour per through lane (VPHPL) during the peak period at the approach of an intersection. • Turning movements less than 75 VPHPL may still require analysis based on local conditions. si-6147 andalalin .

002(29)).a change in trip generation exceeding 25 percent (either peak or daily) of the existing land use’s trip generation and total trip generation for the site of greater than 100 peakhour trips (adapted from FS 14-97." meaning a change in traffic volumes of 25 percent or more or a change in the anticipated LOS. 3.Developments that typically require a detailed site impact study include residential developments of 300 homes or more. or 2. si-6147 andalalin . convenience markets with fueling stations and general office buildings.Criteria • A detailed site impact analysis study should be performed if 1.the proposed development will generate a "significant change in traffic flow on the SHS.01 16 .

01 17 . • In general.Standard Site Impact Procedures • Figure 5 illustrates the basic framework for site impact analysis and review. Site Impact Process si-6147 andalalin . • The type of development will influence the level of detail or sophistication required for each step but some consideration should be given to each step in the process identified in Figure 5. ALL site impact analyses and reviews should follow this set of basic procedures.

1.01 18 . Methodology Development a) Study Area Requirements b)Analysis Years c) Analysis Periods d)Use of Manual Methods Versus Travel Demand Forecasting Models e) Redevelopment Projects f) Consideration of Other Major Committed Developments Figure 6. Site Impact Process si-6147 andalalin .

Department or other agency to discuss a proposed development.01 19 .Methodology Development • This process usually begins when the applicant (developer or other party) contacts the local government. Regional Planning Council (RPC). • Even if no formal process is required. • A formal methodology development process is required for some types of developments. such as a Development of Regional Iimpact (DRI). si-6147 andalalin . it is good practice for participating agencies to agree to some methodology in advance of requesting that the applicant perform a site impact analysis to avoid wasted time and effort.

Study Area Requirements • The study area for site impact analysis is dependent on the type and intensity of the development and local jurisdiction requirements.01 20 . • The study area. sometimes called the area of influence. • Local criteria for refining the study area usually involve a comparison of project traffic to thresholds of the percentage of the maximum service flow rate at an established LOS criterion. • The applicant and the Department’s Reviewer should consult with all appropriate agencies to identify any specific criteria. si-6147 andalalin . • the study area include all facilities where traffic generated by the proposed development is equivalent to 5 percent (10 percent prior to 1994) of the maximum service volume at the LOS standard for the facility. is typically estimated using judgment and then refined during the study process.

01 21 . Example Study Area si-6147 andalalin .Figure 7.

• Additionally. the opening date of the proposed development. the sophistication of the analysis should be reduced for projects with build outs beyond ten years. long-range transportation plans or LGCP horizons. The level of detail associated with the site impact analysis should be related to the ability to predict the future. • Table 6 suggests study horizons as a function of the type of site impact review. 4. 2. a change in the proposed development phasing (notice of proposed change in the DRI process see Unit IV) may require a new analysis year be considered.01 22 . • Therefore. the analysis years should be related to 1.Analysis Years • In general. si-6147 andalalin . and TIP horizons or other significant transportation network changes. build out of major phases in a multi-year development. 3.

• This period represents a typical weekday peak hour during the peak season of the year. • The analysis period should be related to known and anticipated peaking patterns of demand on the transportation system and development traffic. the period selected should be the period that has the highest combination of development and background traffic.01 23 . • If this period may not be adequate.Analysis Periods • Site impact analyses should be based on a peakhour analysis. si-6147 andalalin .

special events and recreational facilities typically generate their peak usage during weekend off-peak periods. • For example.Analysis Periods • If development peaking does not generally agree with peaking of the transportation system. • The ranges of periods to be considered should include the 100th highest hourly volume. Guidance on the peaking characteristics of land uses is provided in Step 4: Trip Generation.01 24 . multiple analysis periods may be considered. si-6147 andalalin . 30th highest hourly volume (required for all design applications). retail. weekend peak periods or other special event peaks.

si-6147 andalalin .Use of Manual Methods Versus Travel Demand Forecasting Models • Two basic methodologies are used in site impact analysis. • The traffic anticipated to occur from the development is then added to the background traffic to determine the impacts of the development.01 25 . The method to be used should be determined as early as possible in the process. Experience and judgment are required to properly estimate trip distribution and assignment with this method. • The manual method consists of using existing traffic data trends to forecast background traffic. • Trip generation rates or equations are then used to determine site traffic. • The process may be performed using manual methods or a travel demand forecasting model for forecasting future traffic volumes.

• If trip generation. si-6147 andalalin . the analysis should consider the traffic associated with the existing development for comparison purposes.01 26 .Redevelopment Projects • If a redevelopment project is being analyzed. then existing site traffic data should be carried through the entire analysis in parallel to the new development to determine the resulting traffic impacts created by redevelopment. distribution or assignment of trips associated with the new development is anticipated to be significantly different from the existing development.

Consideration of Other Major Committed Developments • Other major committed developments defined as developments that have an approved development order or an approved concurrency management certificate should be considered in any site impact analysis. • The traffic from these developments is part of the background traffic and is addressed in greater detail in Step 3: Background Traffic. si-6147 andalalin .01 27 .

Indonesia si-6147 andalalin .01 28 .

pendidikan.01 29 . si-6147 andalalin . • Setiap pengembangan kawasan akan menimbulkan dampak bagi lingkungan di sekitarnya. pusat perbelanjaan. dan lain sebagainya.Indonesia • Pengembangan kawasan di perkotaan dewasa ini dipandang cukup pesat sejalan dengan perkembangan tuntutan masyarakat terhadap fasilitas umum dan fasilitas sosial untuk kegiatan dan/atau usaha terkait dengan perkantoran. termasuk terhadap lalu lintas jalan.

2.pengembangan kawasan dibatasi hanya kepada pengembangan kawasan di wilayah perkotaan. 3.Ruang lingkup Beberapa batasan lingkup.jenis kegiatan dan/atau usaha yang dikembangkan dibatasi hanya pada jenis kegiatan dan/atau usaha yang membangkitkan perjalanan orang.dampak lalu lintas yang ditinjau dibatasi hanya pada dampak terhadap lalu lintas di ruas jalan dan persimpangan jalan yang diprakirakan akan timbul setelah si-6147 andalalin .01 30 . yakni: 1.

534/KPTS/M/2001 tentang Pedoman Standar Pelayanan Minimal si-6147 andalalin . 22 tahun 2009 tentang Lalu lintas dan Angkutan Jalan • Peraturan Pemerintah No. 34 tahun 2006 tentang Jalan • Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan No. 38 tahun 2004 tentang Jalan • Undang-Undang RI No.01 31 . 26 tahun 2007 tentang Penataan Ruang • Undang-Undang RI No. KM 14 Tahun 2006 tentang Manajemen dan Rekayasa Lalu Lintas di Jalan • Kepmenkimpraswil No.Acuan normatif • Undang-Undang RI No.

01 32 .Acuan normatif • RSNI T-13-2004 Tata Cara Perencanaan Geometrik Jalan Perkotaan • Pd T-12-2004-B Tata Cara Pemasangan Rambu Dan Marka Jalan Perkotaan • Pd T-08-2004-B Tata Cara Penanganan Kemacetan Lalu lintas di Jalan Perkotaan • 011/T/Bt/1995 Tata Cara Perencanaan Fasilitas Pejalan Kaki di Kawasan Perkotaan • 271/HK.105/DRJD/96 Perekayasaan Tempat Perhentian Kendaraan Penumpang Umum • 036/T/BM/1997 Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia (MKJI) si-6147 andalalin .

– untuk memastikan bahwa rencana sirkulasi lalu lintas di dalam kawasan dan akses hubungannya dengan jaringan jalan di sekitarnya tidak akan menyebabkan gangguan terhadap tingkat pelayanan jalan.01 33 . si-6147 andalalin . Verifikasi ini terkait dengan: – apakah pengembangan kawasan yang diusulkan tersebut wajib melakukan andalalin atau tidak. maka proposal pengembangan kawasan yang diusulkan oleh pemrakarsa harus diverifikasi terlebih dahulu oleh Instansi terkait di Pemerintah Daerah setempat.Verifikasi proposal pengembangan kawasan • Sebelum pengembangan kawasan dilaksanakan.

• pengembangan kawasan yang direncanakan tersebut tidak mengakses ke jalan arteri.Kriteria pengembangan kawasan yang wajib melakukan andalalin Suatu rencana pengembangan kawasan wajib melakukan andalalin jika memenuhi salah satu dari beberapa kriteria berikut: • pengembangan kawasan yang direncanakan tersebut langsung mengakses ke jalan arteri. maka berlaku kriteria sebagai berikut: – skala kegiatan dan/atau usaha yang direncanakan lebih besar atau sama dengan dari ukuran minimal pengembangan kawasan yang ditetapkan pada Tabel 1.01 34 . si-6147 andalalin .

75 dan/atau jika persimpangan jalan terdekat dengan lokasi pengembangan kawasan sudah memiliki nilai derajat kejenuhan lebih dari atau sama dengan 0.75.2 b) 1) dan 4.Kriteria pengembangan kawasan yang wajib melakukan andalalin – pengembangan kawasan tersebut diprakirakan akan membangkitkan perjalanan lebih besar dari atau sama dengan 100 perjalanan orang per jam. si-6147 andalalin . – terdapat beberapa rencana pengembangan kawasan yang mengakses ke ruas jalan yang sama. – pengembangan kawasan tersebut langsung mengakses ke ruas jalan yang saat ini sudah memiliki nilai derajat kejenuhan lebih dari atau sama dengan 0.2 b) 2).01 35 . sehingga secara kumulatif memenuhi kriteria pada 4.

01 36 .Tabel 1 Ukuran minimal pengembangan kawasan yang wajib melakukan andalalin Jenis pengembangan kawasan Ukuran minimal Permukiman 50 unit Apartemen 50 hunian Perkantoran 1000 m2 luas lantai bangunan Pusat perbelanjaan 500 m2 luas lantai bangunan Hotel/motel/penginapan 50 kamar Rumah sakit 50 tempat tidur Klinik bersama 10 ruang praktek dokter Sekolah/universitas 500 siswa Tempat kursus Bangunan dng kapasitas 50 siswa/waktu Restoran 100 tempat duduk Tempat pertemuan/tempat hiburan/pusat olah raga Kapasitas 100 tamu atau 100 tempat duduk Stasiun pengisian bahan bakar umum (SPBU) 4 slang pompa Gedung/lapangan parkir 50 petak parkir Bengkel kendaraan bermotor 2000 m2 luas lantai bangunan Drive-through untuk bank/restoran/pencucian mobil Wajib si-6147 andalalin .