reliable and even two identical twins also has different iris patterns.  Iris based recognition is one of the most proven technique because it is stable. .  The iris is the only internal organ readily visible from the outside. unique.ABSTRACT  Iris Recognition is one of the important biometric recognition systems that identify people based on their eyes and iris. flexible.

 The amount of information that can be measured in a single iris is much greater than any other biometrics such as fingerprints. usually brown or blue. rings the dark pupil of the eye. voice etc. . face.  This iris is the area of the eye where the pigmented or coloured circle.INTRODUCTION  Iris detection is the process of recognizing the iris pattern by analysing the image of an eye.

. which lies between the cornea and the lens of the human eye.THE HUMAN IRIS  The iris is a thin circular diaphragm.  The function of the iris is to control the amount of light entering through the pupil.


DAUGHMAN’S ALGORITHM  Named after the professor John Daugman. . is an integrodifferential operator that searches over an image of the eye for the circular pupil and the limbic borders of the iris.  It is a circular edge detector that searches for the parameters of a circular border.

DAUGMAN’S OPERATOR  The task is to find the maximum intensity difference and the radius of the iris and the pupil and Daugman’s equation is employed for this task.  The centre point of Daugman’s theory of border recognition is the integrodifferential equation as follows: .



COMPLEMENTING THE IMAGE After complementing the image .

FILLING OF HOLES Filling the holes After removing holes .

 The concept of ‘thresholding below’ is used before implementing Daugman’s equation.THRESHOLDING  Thresholding is a method of selection of pixels in an image.  ‘Thresholding below’ marks some pixels as ‘object pixels’ if those pixels have an intensity value below a certain threshold value. .

 The pixel with the lowest intensity value amongst these nine pixels is used for further calculations.SELECT BY LOCAL MINIMA  The threshold image is further scanned. pixel by pixel to determine whether the pixel is a local minimum in that particular pixel’s immediate 3-by-3 neighbourhood. The rest of the pixels are discarded. .  This means that every pixel intensity is compared to the intensities of the pixels in its immediate eight neighbourhood pixels.

 Only those pixels having value equal to local minima is considered further rest are discarded.  This means that every pixel’s intensity is compared to the minimum of intensities of the pixels in its immediate eight neighbourhood pixels.COLLECTION OF ALL POINTS  The threshold image is further scanned. .  Pixels from previous step to determine whether the pixel is a local minimum in that particular pixel’s immediate 3-by-3 neighbourhood. pixel by pixel amongst the possible centre.

for every assumed center pixel the sum of values of circumferential pixels is noted at different levels of radii.  Circular regions of pixels that do not completely lie inside the eye image are neglected. .APPLY DAUGMAN’S OPERATOR TO FIND PUPIL CENTER AND RADIUS  During the iris detection process.  Amongst all such intensity difference one with maximum difference is selected and that is pupil.

DO THE SIMILAR FOR IRIS BUT WITH SAME RADIUS & IN RANGE  After getting the pupil radius and its centre co-ordinates .iris border can also be found out by applying the following the following concept of Daugman: 0.8*Iris Border Radius .1*Iris Border Radius < Pupil Border Radius < 0.

we will consider only the points inside the detected iris region . i.SEGMENT THESE CIRCLES    After  Considering formula of a circle having centre at co-ordinate (h. it will be assigned ‘255’ (white).k) and having radius r which is as follows:  The following portion is kept and  for the rest of the portion.e.. detecting the iris region as concentric circles. iris detection.

1993  ]DaugmanJ. 2001  Recognition of Human Iris Patterns for Biometric Identification by Libor Masek . no. 11." IEEE Trans. CSVT. 14. High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence. 2004  John Daugman.Recognizing persons by their iris patterns. No."How iris recognition works. UK. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Vol. Daugman.REFERENCES  J. 1. Cambridge University Cambridge. 15.vol.

I am also thankful to Nilanjan Banerjee. SUDIPTA BHATTACHARYA. Computer Science.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are really indebted to MR. Assistant Professor of CSE Department. Bengal Institute of Technology whose role as a project guide was invaluable for the project work. . I am extremely thankful for the keen interest he took in advising and suggesting us. Head of the Department. Bengal Institute of Technology for making facilities available and giving his opinion.