Phylum

Echinodermata
Made Truly By:
Samuel Enrique C. Patoc
Sydrenz Anthony Cao

Echinoderms

The members of the Phylum Echinodermata.

Word derived from the Greek words Echino meaning “hedgehog” and
dermis meaning “skin”.

They are characterized by spiny skin, an endoskeleton, a water
vascular system, and tube feet.

Most of adult echinoderms exhibit five-part radical symmetry. They
typically have no anterior or posterior end and lack cephalization.

They are deuterostomes, animals in which a blastopore develops into
an anus.

Echinoderms and chordates (vertebrates) are closely related,
according to many evidences.

They are only found in oceans (none live in land or freshwaters).

The Evolution of the Phylum Echinodermata in the Kingdom Animalia Cladogram .

The Evolution of the Phylum Echinodermata in the Kingdom Animalia Cladogram .

.  They have hundreds of tube feet attached to each radical canal. It opens to the outside through the madreporite. carries out many essential body functions. which includes respiration.Forms of Echinoderms  They have water vascular systems. This allows them mobility. circulation. and movement. which is filled with fluid.

Forms of Echinoderms : Starfish .

Functions in Echinoderms  Feeding  Respiration and Circulation  Excretion  Response  Movement  Reproduction .

and digests the mollusk in its own shell. .  Sea cucumbers move across the ocean floor.Feeding  They have several methods of feeding. These includes:  Sea urchins use five-part jaw like structures to scrape algae from rocks. Once the prey’s shell is open. pours out enzymes. Then it pulls its stomach and the partially digested prey into its mouth.  Sea lilies use tube feet along their arms to capture floating plankton. the star pushes its stomach out through its mouth. taking in sand and detritus  Sea stars usually feed on mollusks such as clams and mussels.

Feeding : Starfish .

small outgrowths called skin gills also function in the gas exchange. In some species.  In most species. the thin-walled tissue of the tube feet provides the main surface for respiration. .Respiration and Circulation  Other than the water vascular system. echinoderms have few adaptation to carry out respiration or circulation.  Circulation of needed materials and wastes takes place throughout the water vascular system.

Excretion  In most echinoderms. .  This waste product is passed into the surrounding water through the thin-walled tissues of tube feet and skin gills. solid wastes are released as feces through the anus.  Nitrogen-containing cellular wastes are excreted primarily in the form of ammonia.

Response  Echinoderms does not have a highly developed nervous system.  Most have a ring that surrounds the mouth. gravity.  Most echinoderms also have scattered sensory cells that detect light. and chemicals released by potential prey. . and radial nerves that connect to the ring with the body sections.

movable spines attached to their  Ophiuroidea and Asteroidea have flexible joints that enable them to use arms for locomotion. the plates of the endoskeleton are reduced and contained inside a soft.Movement  Most echinoderms move using tube feet and thin layers of muscle fibers attached to their endoskeleton. . muscular body wall.  Echinoidea have endoskeleton. They crawl along the ocean floor by the combined action of tube feet and the muscles of the body wall.  An echinoderm’s mobility is determined in part of the structure of its endoskeleton.  In Holothuroidea.

.Reproduction  Echinoderms reproduce by external fertilization.

Groups of Echinoderms  There are roughly 7000 species of echinoderms – all of which live in the world’s oceans.  Classes of Echinoderms include:  Echinoidea (Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars)  Ophiuroidea (Brittle Stars)  Holothuroidea  Asteroidea  Crinoidea (Sea Cucumbers) (Sea Star) (Sea Lilies and Feather Stars) .

Group of Echinoderms .

. whereas others defend themselves using long. sharp spines. solid plates that form a box around their internal organs.  Some sea urchins wedge themselves in rock crevices during the day.Echinoidea (Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars)  These echinoderms are unique in having large.  Sand dollars often burrow under layers of sand or mud.  Many are detrivores or grazers that eat large quantities of algae.  They defend themselves in different ways..

Ophiuroidea (Brittle Stars)  These are common in many parts of the sea.  They are filter feeders and detrivores that hide by day and wander around under cover of darkness. flexible arms and can scuttle around quite rapidly to escape predators.  Brittle stars shed one or more arms that keeps movie to distract the attacking predator while the brittle star escapes. .  They have slender. especially on coral reefs.

Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers)  They look like moving pickles. . warty.  Most of them are detritus feeders that move along the seafloor while sucking up organic matter and the remains of other organisms.  Herds containing hundreds of thousands of sea cucumbers roam across the deep-sea floor.

preying on bivalves. .  They have incredible abilities to repair themselves when damaged.Asteroidea (Sea Star)  They are probably the bestknown group of echinoderms.  They move by creeping slowly along the ocean floor.  Most are carnivorous.

. feathery arms. their fossilized ancestors lived attached to the ocean bottom by a long.Crinoidea (Sea Lilies and Feather Stars)  These filter feeders.  They are common in tropical oceans today. make up the oldest class of echinoderms. which have long. where they perch onto of rocks and use their tube feet to catch floating plankton. and a rich fossil record shows that they were distributed widely throughout ancient seas.  Like modern sea lilies. stem-like stalk.  Many modern feather stars live on coral reefs.

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