HISTORY OF

ARCHITECTURE

SUBMITTED TO:
AR. PRIYA MATHUR

SUBMITTED BY:
AKSHI GIRDHAR
CHANDA KHATRI
2nd Year, 3rd sem.,sec. B
Faculty of architecture,
Jagannath University

.Where is the Indus valley ? The Indus Valley is on the border between India.The main city may have been MohenjoDaro but it could have been Harappa.North East of Mohenjo Daro are the Himalayan mountains.Pakistan and Afghanistan. To the West of MohenjoDaro are the Highlands.

 It was made from bricks smoothened and joined together seamlessly. connected to many northsouth and east-west sewers.5 meters deep and 91 cm across. . 1. The main sewer. The expert masonry kept the sewer watertight.The Drainage System The most unique aspect of planning during the Indus Valley civilization was the system of underground drainage. Drops at regular intervals acted like an automatic cleaning device. This drain is about 5 meters deep.

the drain could be easily accessed. The drainage systems were so big that a human would have been able to walk through the middle of one.  They were also very clever because they used cement and clay bricks to make the drains. which always sloped downhill. This was really helpful because if the drain was blocked. MEN HOLE .

There were underground drains for the streets. Each house had horizontal and vertical drains. The soak pits were made of bricks. These drains were covered by stone slabs.Working of the Drainage System Water flowed from houses into the street drains. The street drains had manholes at regular intervals. . The house drains were connected with road drains.

the water ran into the houses and silt built up. If the drains were not cleaned. All soak pits and drains were occasionally cleaned by workmen. Housewives were expected to use pits in which heavier part of the rubbish will settle down while only sewerage water was allowed to drain off. and today archaeologists call these high structures “mounds”. This raised the level of the city over the years. Then the Harappans would build another story on top of it. .

 In every house there was a well-constructed sink. Liquids entered a cess poll made of radial bricks. A wooden screen at the end of the drains held back solid wastes.  Commoner houses had baths and drains that emptied into underground soakage jars. and water flowed from the sink into the underground sewers in the streets. Tunnels carried the waste liquids to the main channel connecting the dockyard with the river estuary. .

but also had a system to pump fresh water into their homes. These sewers drained into nearly rivers and streams. They have also found that even the smallest house at the edge of each town was linked to that town's central drainage system.• Scientists have found what they think are giant reservoirs for fresh water. (Is it possible that they not only drained waste water out. • its own private bathroom. similar to modern plumbing. . Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the streets.

• 26th century BC: Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had a flush toilet in almost every house.• In indus valley civilisation there were two types of toilets mainly used that is pit toilet and flush toilets. attached to a sophisticated sewage system. .

Drainage system from the harappan civilisation Sanitary drainage at the acropolis. .

 This elaborate drainage system shows that the Indus Valley people were fully conversant with the principles of health and sanitation.Drainage system • Rakhigarhi. Puratattav) (29°16'N and 76°10'E) is situated in tehsil Narnuaul. Distt. Haryana.( A Harappan metropolis in the sarawati-drishwati divide . Hisar. The site is in the drainage basin of ancient Sarawati-Drishdwati rivers. .

Source • ancient indian town planning by akshat kaushik • indiansaga.com • www.com/induscivilization .crystalinks.com • harappa.