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Original Title: Chapter 10 Presentation of DBSD of Structures

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BRIDGES

Presented By:

M Shahid Mehmood

2k15-PhD/UET-CE-73

BRIDGES

INTRODUTION

of structural elements is small.

Piers

Span

Abutments

On the other hand they often are very irregular, with

Variable

column heights

Principal Choices of bridge column section shapes will be

between

Rectangular and Circular sections

Single or Multi-column piers

Solid and Hollow Section shapes

Rectangular columns in bridge design are less desirable

than circular columns because

Difficulty in providing adequate restraint by transverse

hoops against buckling.

Under diagonal seismic response, cover spalling will

initiate at lower seismic intensity than when responding in

the principal directions.

Circular columns are generally

Confined by spirals or circular hoops

Easy to construct

Omni-directional strength and stiffness

With

chamfered

rectangular

sections

the

longitudinal

the advantage of ease of construction noted above for circular

sections.

For large, long-span bridges, hollow columns may be an

option. These have advantage of

Reducing concrete mass

Reducing inertial response of piers

Reducing the tendency of thermal cracking at an early

age resulting from heat of hydration

Hollow circular sections are less common than hollow rectangular

sections despite all considerations (which would indicate improved

seismic performance) for circular option noted above for solid

sections.

compression strains are less than about 0.006.

At higher extreme fibre strains, external cover spalling can result in

sudden increase in neutral axis depth, increasing the strain at

internal surface of the section to the stage where internal spalling,

resulting in implosion, occurs.

The choice between single column and multi-column piers

can not be made independently.

With bearing-supported superstructures, the single-column

design has attraction because

degree of certainty

Strength and stiffness can be made equal in orthogonal

directions since the pier will respond as a vertical cantilever

in all directions.

Multi-column piers are more appropriate when

Monolithic connection details are selected

Superstructure width is large

If superstructure is bearing supported on a multi-column pier

cap then

Strength and stiffness is non-uniform in orthogonal

directions

A major disadvantage of monolithic connection is

Seismic moments developed at the top of the pier are

transmitted to superstructure. This adds the superstructure

gravity moments. Resisting these may increase the cost of

superstructure.

Monolithic details are appropriate when the superstructure is

continuous over the pier, rather than simply supported.

Bearing-supported superstructures have the advantage of

minimizing the problems associated with moment transfer from

pier to superstructure.

Seismic displacement of bearing superstructure will

generally be larger than those of structure with monolithic

connections.

Soil-Structure Interaction

Bridges are often require to cross rivers and valleys where

foundation conditions are less than ideal. As a consequence

soil structure interaction effects require special considerations.

In fig 10.13 (a), the pier is supported on spread footing.

Partial uplift of the footing on foundation material cause

increase in base rotation. Thus increasing foundation flexibility

and yield displacement increases. Thus reducing displacement

ductility demand and reduces damping.

footing should still be in contact with foundation material.

This will ensure that footing has sufficient overturning

capacity to support maximum feasible overturning moment.

a supporting pile. Maximum moment occur some distance

below the ground surface. Elastic rotation at hinge also add to

yield displacement. Thus increasing foundation flexibility.

and stiffness are lower than pile cap translation is significant. If

piles are supported on firm stratum, the pile cap rotation may

be lower.

Superstructure

movement

joints

are

provided

to

continual maintenance.

Location of movement joints should be considered from the

seismic as well as serviceability view point.

There will be additional damping associated with relative

joint displacements.

P- effects are particularly important for bridges as piers

are often high.

Drift limitations imposed by design codes for buildings will

not be applied for bridges.

Response drifts for bridges are 0.04 or higher.

Response

The longitudinal response of straight bridges is simplified by

the fact except for very long bridges, the design displacements

will be the same at all piers.

appropriate to separately design segment of bridges between

movement joints.

Pier yield displacement in longitudinal direction depends on

a)Yield curvature

b)Degree of fixity at top and bottom

c)Pier height.

Yield curvature of different sections are shown in equ. 4.57.

It is discussed in previous chapters that yield curvature is

independent of stiffness and strength.

Moment-Curvature plots of two sections are compared in fig

10.4.

In initial stages, there is little difference between strength

and stiffness of two columns having same diameter, same

longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, same axial loads

and same strength but one section is hollow and other is solid.

of 0.006 on extreme fibre compression strain for hollow

column. This also limits the curvature ductility capacity as

max

y

,hollow 4

,solid 16.4

End-fixity conditions at both top and bottom will effect the yield

displacement of pier. A number of possible conditions are

shown in fig 10.5.

Yield displacement is given by,

y C1 y H Lsp

(10.1)

In fig 10.5 (a), Superstructure is

bearing supported and footing is

rigid against rotation and translation.

For this case

C1 1

3

Lsp 0.022 f ye d bl

In fig 10.5 (b), superstructure has

monolithic connection to pier and footing

is rigid. For this case,

C1 1

Superstructure Rigid

1

1

Superstructure Flexible

C1

6 1 C

2

4 EI ( Ls1.Ls 2 )

C2

(10.2)

6 I ss ( H Lsp )( Ls1 Ls 2 )

The situation in fig 10.5 (c) is inverse of

fig 10.5 (a), with hinge provided at column

base to reduce foundation moments and

monolithic connection to superstructure.

This detail is only appropriate when pier

consist of more than one column, since

single-column design with this detail would

be unstable transversely.

Fig 10.5 (d) has a column supported on

flexible

base

and

pile/superstructure

supported or monolithic.

foundation

flexibility.

The

additional

foundation

flexibility is

F ( M B VB hF )( H hF ) kv I

(10.3)

Fig 10.5 (e) has a column/pile where the

pile continues in ground into the foundation

material and superstructure/column connection

is either bearing supported or monolithic.

Relationship between HIG/D and H/D are

expressed in dimensionless form in fig 10.6 (a)

and (b).

It will be noted that in ground depth (HIG-H)

decreases as dimensionless above ground

height H/D increases.

As soil strength increases, In-ground plastic

hinge depth (HIG-H) decreases.

Relationships between HIG/D and H/D are:

Sand, 30o : (H IG /D) 4.3 0.82(H/D)

(10.4a)

(10.4b)

(10.4c)

(10.4d)

The coefficients to be used in equ. 10.1 are plotted in fig. 10.6

(c) and (d) against column above ground heights, internal

friction angle, pinned connection, fixed connection and soil

strength. The data in fig.10.6 is represented by following

equations.

Sand, pinned head, 30 o :

Sand, pinned head, 37 o :

Sand, Fixed head, all :

Clay, p u 20kPa :

Clay, p u 40kPa :

Clay, fixxed head, all p u :

C1 1.187 0.223ln(H/D)

C1 1.137 0.230ln(H/D)

C1 1.137 0.230ln(H/D)

C1 1.840 0.363ln(H/D)

C1 1.767 0.360ln(H/D)

C1 0.447 0.055ln(H/D)

(10.5a)

(10.5b)

(10.5c)

(10.5d)

(10.5e)

(10.5f)

Yield displacement of elastically responding piers is given by

y

2.25 y ( H Lsp ) 2

3D

(10.6)

earthquake magnitude with different PGA.

From aspect ratio and diameter, yield displacement can be

found for PGA and earthquake magnitude as shown in fig 10.8.

Piers

In buildings design displacements are set by drift limits, this

is not the case for bridges.

In bridges, design displacements are set by strain limits. P-

effects may also limit the design displacements.

D y ls y L p H

10.12

found by

ls ,c

c ,ls

ls , s

s ,ls

d c

10.7a

10.7b

Piers

As curvature is associated with neutral axis depth c, the neutral

axis depth is given by

0.2 0.65 P

'

ce

f Ag

10.8

at start of design and value of reinforcement ratio is initially

assumed to find neutral axis depth.

Piers

The design process to determine design displacement for

longitudinal response can be expressed in the following steps.

Step 1: Determine the volumetric ratio

4 Ab

'

10.9

D

S

Step 2: Determine the confined compression strength of core

concrete ( f cc' ).

Step 3: Determine the damage-control compression strain

dc ,c

v f yh su

0.004 1.4

f cc'

10.10

Piers

Step 4: Determine the column axial force ratio.

Step 5: Estimate neutral axis depth.

Step 6: Determine limit state curvature.

Step 7: Determine plastic hinge length.

10.11

D y ls y L p H

10.12

Determine Design Displacement For A Footing

Supported Column:

To illustrate the sequence of operations described in the

previous section, we consider a footing-supported column

monolithically

connected

to

the

superstructure,

under

(78.7 in), has a clear height of 12.0 m (39.4 ft), and supports

an axial load including self weight, of 10,000kN (2250 kips),

Specified material strengths are fc = 30MPa (hence, from

Section 4.2.5 fce = 1.3 x 30 = 39 MPa (5.66 ksi)) and

fy = fyh = 420MPa (hence from section 4.2.5 fye = 462MPa

(67.0ksi)). The ratio of ultimate to yield strength of the

longitudinal reinforcement 1.35. Longitudinal bar diameter is 40

mm (1,575 in), with 50 mm (1.97 in) cover, and the transverse

reinforcements initially selected as 20 mm (0.79 in) diameter at

l00 mm (3.94 in) spacing along the column axis. Small

adjustment to the spacing may be made after final design.

Reinforcement strains at ultimate stress are 0.10 and 0.l2 for

longitudinal and transverse reinforcement respectively.

For A Footing Supported Column

Given Data;

Column diameter = D = 2 m , Column Height = H = 12 m

Axial Load (including self-weight) = 10,000 kN = 10 MPa

f c' 30 MPa

f y f yh 420 MPa

fu

f ye

1.35

u ,ls 0.10

su 0.12

f ye 1.1 x 420 462 MPa

d bh 20 mm @100mm

d bl 40 mm

Concrete cover 50 mm

Solution

Case (a) Fixed End Connection.

Step 1: Determine the volumetric ratio (From Equ.10.9)

v 4 Ab

Ab d 2

4

2

(20) 314

4

D'S

Step 2: Determine Confined compression strength fcc of core

concrete.

f yh

f

'

ce

420

39

10.8

We find

f cc'

f ce

'

1.23

Thus,

Step 3: Determine damage

control compression strain

From equ. 10.10

dc ,c

v f yh su

0.004 1.4

f cc'

'

ce

10.8 and

v 0.00654

dc ,c

0.00654 x420x0.12

0.004 1.4

48

= 0.0136

Step 4: Determine axial force ratio

P '

10

0.0816

39 x3.14

f ce Ag

Step 5: Estimate neutral axis

depth

longitudinal

reinforcement ratio = 1.8 %

From fig. 10.9 (a),

c / D 0.240

c 0.240 x 2 0.480

ls ,c

ls , s

dc ,c

0.0136

0.48

s ,ls

0.0283 / m

d c

0.06

0.0414 / m

1.93 0.48

governs

s ,ls 0.6 u

0.6 x0.1

0.06

From Equ.4.31b

fu

k 0.2

1 0.08

f

From Equ.4.30

Lsp 0.022 f ye d bl

top,

Lc 6 m

L p 0.07 x 6 0.47 0.827 m

Step 8: Determine Design Displacement. From equ. 10.12

D y ls y L p H

From Equ.10.1

y C1 y H Lsp

f ye

462

2

E

200,000

.00231

From Equ.4.57a

2.25 y

C1 1

Lsp 2 Lsp

y C1 y H Lsp

= 0.0712 m

Design displacement is given by,

D y ls y L p H

= 0.326 mm

Corresponding displacement ductility capacity is

D 0.326 0.0712 4.58

y

If column is pinned at top then the yield and damage control

curvatures are unaffected.

Values from Step 1 to Step 6 are same as for fixed end

condition.

ls ,c 0.0283 / m

y 0.0026 / m

fu

k 0.2

1 0.08

f

Lsp 0.022 f ye d bl

Lc 12 m

L p 0.07 x12 0.47 1.247 m

Step 8: Determine Design Displacement From equ. 10.12

D y ls y L p H

From Equ.10.1

y C1 y H Lsp

C1 1

Lsp Lsp

y C1 y H Lsp

= 0.133 mm

Design displacement is given by,

D y ls y L p H

= 0.518 mm

Corresponding displacement ductility capacity is

D 0.518 0.133 3.90

y

For pile/column, plastic hinge forming in ground is not affected

by strain penetration (Lsp).

So Plastic hinge length is given

by eq.(10.13)

L p D 1 0.1 H H cp D 1.6

Average value of HCP/HIG are,

0.52

0.57

Sand

Clay

(10.13)

Step

A:

Determine

Height

from

in

ground

hinge

superstructure.

Step B: Follow steps 1 to 6 for a footing supported pier.

Step C: Determine the plastic hinge length.

Step D: Determine the design displacement.

Pinned Connection : D y , IG ls y L p , IG H IG

(10.14)

Fixed connection : D y , F C3 ls y L p ,T H IG

(10.15)

C3 1.68

Sand

1.54

Clay

to

For A Pile/Column

Given Data: Given data is same as for example 10.1.

Column diameter = D = 2 m ,

Column Height = H = 12 m

f c' 30 MPa

f y f yh 420 MPa

fu

f ye

1.35

u ,ls 0.10

su 0.12

f ye 1.1 x 420 462 MPa

d bh 20 mm @100mm

d bl 40 mm

Concrete cover 50 mm

Soil is dense sand,

37 o

Solution

Case (a) Pinned End Connection.

Step A: Determine Height from in-ground hinge to superstructure

for

H IG D 3.40 0.84 x H D

H IG D 3.40 0.8412 2

H IG 8.44 x 2 16.88 mm

Since the given data is also used for example 10.1, so yield

displacements and limit state curvatures are numerically

identical as for example 10.1

ls 0.0283 / m

y 0.0026 / m

L p , IG D 1 0.1 H H cp D 1.6

for pinned connection

H CP 0

L p , IG D 1 0.112 0 2 1.6

L p , IG

3.2 mm

for Pinned Connection : D y , IG ls y L p , IG H IG

y , IG C1 y H 2

C1 1.137 0.230 ln H D

(10.5b)

y , IG 0.725x 0.0026x12 2

0.537 mm

D y , IG ls y L p , IG H IG

0.537 (0.0283 - 0.0026)x3.2x16.88

1.925 m

D

1.925

3.6

0

.

537

y . IG

Step A: Determine Height from in-ground hinge to superstructure

for

H IG

D 3.40 0.84 x H D

H IG 8.44 x 2 16.88 mm

Since the given data is also used for example 10.1, so yield

displacements and limit state curvatures are numerically

identical as for example 10.1.

ls 0.0283 / m

y 0.0026 / m

L p kH CP Lsp 2 Lsp

For sand

H CP / H IG 0.5

This implies,

So,

H cp 0.5x16.88 8.78 m

1.022 m

k 0.07

Lsp 407 mm

Fixed connection : D y , F C3 ls y L p H IG

For sand,

C3 1.68

y , F C1 y

IG

Lsp

C1 0.310 0.030 ln H D

(10.1)

(10.5c)

So,

Thus,

y , F 0.256x0.0026x(16.88 0.407) 2

0.199 m

D 0.199 1.68(0.0283 - 0.0026)x1.022x16.88

0.624 m

Four Bridge span

The four-span bridge of fig 10.14 has a superstructure

depth of 2 m and monolithic connection between piers and

superstructure. Superstructure mass averages 190 kN/m

including weight of internal cap beam but not the column

weight. The 2 m diameter single-column piers based on the

data for design example 10.1.

Column diameter = D = 2 m ,

Axial Load

= 10,000 kN

f c' 30 MPa

f y f yh 420 MPa

fu

f ye

1.35

u ,ls 0.10

su 0.12

= 10 MPa

f ye 1.1 x 420 462 MPa

Concrete cover 50 mm

Soil is dense sand,

37 o

1st we check that the column axial loads are compatible with the

assumption of column can support 10,000 kN.

Central pier C: using a tributary length of superstructure 50m

and self weight = d2/4 x 23.5 = 3.14x22/4 x23.5 = 73.8 kN/m,

the axial loads at top and bottom of column C are,

column top: P = 50 x 190 = 9500 kN

column base: P = 9500 + 12 x 73.8 = 10400 kN

Pier B & D: using a tributary length of superstructure 45m, axial

loads are

column top: P = 45 x 190 = 8550 kN

column base: P = 8550 + 16 x 73.8 = 9700 kN

of neutral axis depth of 0.48 as in example 10.1.

Design Dispalcements: Displacement of central pier C will

govern. Design displacement is same as calculated in example

10.1.

D = 0.326 m

calculated.

Yield Dispalcements: Yield displacement of pier C has already

bean calculated in example 10.1.

Pier C:

Y = 0.0712 m

Pier B & D:

Y = (H+2Lsp)2/6

= .0026(16+2x0.407)2/6 = 0.123 m

Displacement ductilities:

Pier C:

y

Pier B & D:

c 0.05 0.444

Pier C:

c 0.05 0.444

4.58 1

0.160

4.58

2.65 1

Pier B & D: B , D 0.05 0.444

0.138

4.58

System Damping:

As all piers have same flexure reinforcement ratio, as a

consequence the flexural strength of all piers will be

essentially the same,

force transmitted. With equal moment capacities, the

shear carried by the piers are inverse proportion to their

MC MB

heights. From eq. 10.18

VC H C VB H B

V

i i

VB B VD D VC C

H

m

VC B

VB

sys

H

C

VB VD VC

Vi

m

sys

1 1 1.33

0.147

16

V 1.33VB

12 B

MB MD

VB H D

HB

16

VD

V 1.0VD

Effective Period:

16 D

The effective period of response is found entering with a

displacement of 0.326m, and intersecting the spectrum

for sys = 0.147 as shown by dashed line in figure (10.15

b). The effective time period is

Te = 1.761 sec

Effective mass:

1/3 of the column mass be added to the mass lumped at the

superstructure level. Hence, the effective mass is

me.g = 190 x 180 + 0.333(12+2x16)x73.8 = 35300kN

Effective Stiffness:

From eq. 3.1

4 2 me

Ke

Te2

4 2 x 35.3

45.9 MN / m

2

9.805x1.761

Base Shear:

From eq. 3.2

Vbase = keD = 45.9 x 0.326 = 14.95 MN

proportion to their heights. Thus,

VB = VD = 14.95/3.33 = 4.49 MN

VC = 1.33 x 14.95/3.33= 5.97 MN

VB VC VD VBase

VB 1.33VB VB VBase

3.33VB VBase VB

MB = MD = VB,D x H/2

= 4.49 x 8 = 35.9 MNm

MC= VC x H/2

= 5.97 x 6 = 35.8 MNm

P- Effect:

From eq. 3.45, the stability index is given by

P max

MD

VBase

3.33

10 x 0.326

0.091

35.9

indicates that P- effects can be ignored.

Moment-curvature analysis using CUMBIA indicates that with

axial load of 10 MN, the moment (35.9 MN) can be provided

at a peak compression strain of 0.0136 by 91200 mm 2 of

flexural reinforcement (2.9%).

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