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Chapter 16.

Island Arc Magmatism

Activity along arcuate volcanic island chains


along subduction zones
Distinctly different from the mainly basaltic
provinces thus far

Composition more diverse and silicic


Basalt generally occurs in subordinate
quantities
Also more explosive than the quiescent basalts
Strato-volcanoes are the most common
volcanic landform

Igneous activity is related to convergent


plate situations that result in the subduction
of one plate beneath another
The initial petrologic model:
Oceanic crust is partially melted
Melts rise through the overriding plate to
form volcanoes just behind the leading
plate edge
Unlimited supply of oceanic crust to melt

Ocean-ocean Island Arc (IA)


Ocean-continent Continental Arc or
Active Continental Margin (ACM)

Figure 16-1. Principal subduction zones associated with orogenic volcanism and plutonism. Triangles are on the overriding
plate. PBS = Papuan-Bismarck-Solomon-New Hebrides arc. SAfter Wilson (1989) Igneous Petrogenesis, Allen Unwin/Kluwer.

Subduction Products

Characteristic igneous associations


Distinctive patterns of metamorphism
Orogeny and mountain belts

Complexly
Interrelated

Structure of an Island Arc

Figure 16-2. Schematic cross section through a typical island arc after Gill (1981), Orogenic Andesites
and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. HFU= heat flow unit (4.2 x 10-6 joules/cm2/sec)

Volcanic Rocks of Island Arcs

Complex tectonic situation and broad spectrum


High proportion of basaltic andesite and andesite

Most andesites occur in subduction zone settings


Table 16-1. Relative Proportions of Quaternary Volcanic
Island Arc Rock Types

Locality
Talasea, Papua
Little Sitkin, Aleutians
Mt. Misery, Antilles (lavas)
Ave. Antilles
Ave. Japan (lava, ash falls)

B
9
0
17
17
14

B-A
23
78
22

A
55
4
49
42
85

D
9
18
12
39
2

After Gill (1981, Table 4.4) B = basalt B-A = basaltic andesite


A = andesite, D = dacite,

R = rhyolite

R
4
0
0
2
0

Major Elements and Magma Series

Tholeiitic (MORB, OIT)


Alkaline (OIA)
Calc-Alkaline (~ restricted to SZ)

Major Elements and


Magma Series
a. Alkali vs. silica
b. AFM
c. FeO*/MgO vs. silica
diagrams for 1946 analyses from
~ 30 island and continental arcs
with emphasis on the more
primitive volcanics
Figure 16-3. Data compiled by Terry
Plank (Plank and Langmuir, 1988)
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90, 349-370.

Sub-series of Calc-Alkaline

K2O is an important discriminator 3 sub-series

Figure 16-4. The three andesite


series of Gill (1981) Orogenic
Andesites and Plate Tectonics.
Springer-Verlag. Contours
represent the concentration of
2500 analyses of andesites
stored in the large data file
RKOC76 (Carnegie Institute
of Washington).

Figure 16-6. a. K2O-SiO2 diagram distinguishing high-K, medium-K and low-K series. Large squares = high-K, stars = med.-K,
diamonds = low-K series from Table 16-2. Smaller symbols are identified in the caption. Differentiation within a series (presumably
dominated by fractional crystallization) is indicated by the arrow. Different primary magmas (to the left) are distinguished by
vertical variations in K2O at low SiO2. After Gill, 1981, Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag.

Figure 16-6. b. AFM diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series. Arrows
represent differentiation trends within a series.

Figure 16-6. c. FeO*/MgO vs. SiO2 diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series.

Figure 16-6. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Figure 16-6. c. FeO*/MgO vs. SiO2 diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series.

Figure 16-6. c. FeO*/MgO vs. SiO2 diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series.

6 sub-series if combine tholeiite and C-A (some are rare)


May choose 3 most common:
Low-K tholeiitic
Med-K C-A
Hi-K mixed

Figure 16-5. Combined K2O - FeO*/MgO diagram in which the Low-K to High-K series are combined with the tholeiitic vs. calcalkaline types, resulting in six andesite series, after Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. The
points represent the analyses in the appendix of Gill (1981).

Tholeiitic vs. Calc-alkaline differentiation

Figure 16-6. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Tholeiitic vs. Calc-alkaline differentiation


Tholeiitic silica in the
Skaergrd Intrusion

No change

C-A shows continually


increasing SiO2 and lacks
dramatic Fe enrichment

Calc-alkaline differentiation

Early crystallization of an Fe-Ti oxide phase


Probably related to the high water content of calcalkaline magmas in arcs, dissolves high fO2
High water pressure also depresses the plagioclase
liquidus and more An-rich
As hydrous magma rises, P plagioclase liquidus
moves to higher T crystallization of considerable Anrich-SiO2-poor plagioclase
The crystallization of anorthitic plagioclase and lowsilica, high-Fe hornblende is an alternative mechanism for
the observed calc-alkaline differentiation trend

Figure 16-8. K2O-SiO2 diagram of nearly 700 analyses for Quaternary island arc volcanics from the SundaBanda arc. From Wheller et al. (1987) J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res., 32, 137-160.

Other Trends

Spatial

K-h: low-K tholeiite near trench C-A


alkaline as depth to seismic zone increases
Some along-arc as well
Antilles more alkaline N S
Aleutians is segmented with C-A prevalent
in segments and tholeiite prevalent at ends

Temporal

Early tholeiitic later C-A and often latest


alkaline is common

REEs

Slope within series is


similar, but height varies
with FX due to removal of
Ol, Plag, and Pyx
(+) slope of low-K DM

Trace Elements

Some even more depleted than


MORB

Others have more normal


slopes
Thus heterogeneous mantle
sources
HREE flat, so no deep garnet

Figure 16-10. REE diagrams for some representative Low-K


(tholeiitic), Medium-K (calc-alkaline), and High-K basaltic andesites
and andesites. An N-MORB is included for reference (from Sun and
McDonough, 1989). After Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate
Tectonics. Springer-Verlag.

MORB-normalized Spider diagrams

Intraplate OIB has typical hump

Figure 14-3. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous


and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. Data from Sun
and McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry
(eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London
Spec. Publ., 42. pp. 313-345.

MORB-normalized Spider diagrams


IA: decoupled HFS - LIL (LIL are hydrophilic)
What is it about subduction zone setting that
causes fluid-assisted enrichment?

Figure 14-3. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous


and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. Data from Sun
and McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry
(eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London
Spec. Publ., 42. pp. 313-345.

Figure 16-11a. MORB-normalized spider diagrams for


selected island arc basalts. Using the normalization and
ordering scheme of Pearce (1983) with LIL on the left and
HFS on the right and compatibility increasing outward
from Ba-Th. Data from BVTP. Composite OIB from Fig
14-3 in yellow.

Isotopes

New Britain, Marianas, Aleutians, and South Sandwich


volcanics plot within a surprisingly limited range of DM

Figure 16-12. Nd-Sr


isotopic variation in some
island arc volcanics.
MORB and mantle array
from Figures 13-11 and
10-15. After Wilson
(1989), Arculus and
Powell (1986), Gill
(1981), and McCulloch et
al. (1994). Atlantic
sediment data from
White et al. (1985).

Figure 16-12. Variation in 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb for oceanic island arc volcanics. Included are the isotopic reservoirs and the
Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) proposed in Chapter 14. The geochron represents the mutual evolution of
207
Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb in a single-stage homogeneous reservoir. Data sources listed in Wilson (1989).

Be created by cosmic rays + oxygen and nitrogen in upper atmos.


Earth by precipitation & readily clay-rich oceanic seds

10

Half-life of only 1.5 Ma (long enough to be subducted, but


quickly lost to mantle systems). After about 10 Ma 10Be is no
longer detectable
Be/9Be averages about 5000 x 10-11 in the uppermost
oceanic sediments

10

In mantle-derived MORB and OIB magmas, & continental


crust, 10Be is below detection limits (<1 x 106 atom/g) and
10Be/9Be is <5 x 10-14

B is a stable element
Very brief residence time deep in subduction zones

B in recent sediments is high (50-150 ppm), but has a greater


affinity for altered oceanic crust (10-300 ppm)

In MORB and OIB it rarely exceeds 2-3 ppm

Be/Betotal vs. B/Betotal diagram (Betotal 9Be since 10Be is so


rare)
10

Figure 16-14. 10Be/Be(total)


vs. B/Be for six arcs. After
Morris (1989) Carnegie Inst.
of Washington Yearb., 88,
111-123.

Petrogenesis of Island Arc Magmas

Why is subduction zone magmatism a paradox?

Of the many variables that can affect the isotherms in


subduction zone systems, the main ones are:
1) the rate of subduction
2) the age of the subduction zone
3) the age of the subducting slab
4) the extent to which the subducting slab induces
flow in the mantle wedge
Other factors, such as:
dip of the slab
frictional heating
endothermic metamorphic reactions
metamorphic fluid flow
are now thought to play only a minor role

Typical thermal model for a subduction zone


Isotherms will be higher (i.e. the system will be hotter) if
a) the convergence rate is slower
b) the subducted slab is young and near the ridge (warmer)
c) the arc is young (<50-100 Ma according to Peacock, 1991)

yellow curves
= mantle flow

Figure 16-15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

The principal source components IA magmas


1. The crustal portion of the subducted slab
1a Altered oceanic crust (hydrated by circulating seawater,
and metamorphosed in large part to greenschist facies)
1b Subducted oceanic and forearc sediments
1c Seawater trapped in pore spaces

Figure 16-15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

The principal source components IA magmas


2. The mantle wedge between the slab and the arc crust
3. The arc crust
4. The lithospheric mantle of the subducting plate
5. The asthenosphere beneath the slab

Figure 16-15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

Left with the subducted crust and mantle wedge


The trace element and isotopic data suggest that both
contribute to arc magmatism. How, and to what
extent?
Dry peridotite solidus too high for melting of
anhydrous mantle to occur anywhere in the
thermal regime shown
LIL/HFS ratios of arc magmas water plays a
significant role in arc magmatism

The sequence of pressures and temperatures that a rock is


subjected to during an interval such as burial, subduction,
metamorphism, uplift, etc. is called a pressure-temperaturetime or P-T-t path

P-T-t paths for the subducted crust in a variety of arc scenarios


numerically modeled by Peacock (1990, 1991)
All curves are based on a subduction rate of 3 cm/yr, so the
length of each curve represents about 15 Ma
Subducted Crust
The yellow P-T-t
paths represent
various arc ages
Figure 16-16. Subducted crust
pressure-temperature-time (P-Tt) paths for various situations of
arc age (yellow curves) and age
of subducted lithosphere (red
curves, for a mature ca. 50 Ma
old arc) assuming a subduction
rate of 3 cm/yr (Peacock, 1991,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,
335, 341-353).

Red curves = age of the subducted slab

Subducted Crust

Figure 16-16. Subducted crust


pressure-temperature-time (P-Tt) paths for various situations of
arc age (yellow curves) and age
of subducted lithosphere (red
curves, for a mature ca. 50 Ma
old arc) assuming a subduction
rate of 3 cm/yr (Peacock, 1991,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,
335, 341-353).

Now add the solidi for dry and water-saturated melting of basalt

Subducted Crust

Figure 16-16. Subducted crust


pressure-temperature-time (P-Tt) paths for various situations of
arc age (yellow curves) and age
of subducted lithosphere (red
curves, for a mature ca. 50 Ma
old arc) assuming a subduction
rate of 3 cm/yr (Peacock, 1991).
Included are some pertinent
reaction curves, including the
wet and dry basalt solidi (Figure
7-20), the dehydration of
hornblende (Lambert and
Wyllie, 1968, 1970, 1972),
chlorite + quartz (Delaney and
Helgeson, 1978). Winter (2001).
An Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.

1.

Dehydration D and liberation of water takes place (mature arcs


with lithosphere > 25 Ma old)

2. Slab melting M
occurs arcs
subducting young
lithosphere, as
dehydration of
chlorite or
amphibole release
water above the wet
solidus to form Mgrich andesites
directly.

Subducted Crust

The LIL/HFS trace element data underscore


the importance of slab-derived water and a
MORB-like mantle wedge source
The flat HREE pattern argues against a
garnet-bearing (eclogite) source
Thus modern opinion has swung toward the
non-melted slab for most cases

Mantle Wedge P-T-t Paths

Amphibole-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 120 km


Phlogopite-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 200 km
second arc behind first?

Figure 16-18. Some calculated P-T-t


paths for peridotite in the mantle wedge
as it follows a path similar to the flow
lines in Figure 16-15. Included are some
P-T-t path range for the subducted crust
in a mature arc, and the wet and dry
solidi for peridotite from Figures 10-5
and 10-6. The subducted crust
dehydrates, and water is transferred to
the wedge (arrow). After Peacock
(1991), Tatsumi and Eggins (1995).
Winter (2001). An Introduction to
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.

Crust and
Mantle
Wedge

Island Arc Petrogenesis

Figure 16-11b. A proposed


model for subduction zone
magmatism with particular
reference to island arcs.
Dehydration of slab crust
causes hydration of the
mantle (violet), which
undergoes partial melting as
amphibole (A) and
phlogopite (B) dehydrate.
From Tatsumi (1989), J.
Geophys. Res., 94, 4697-4707
and Tatsumi and Eggins
(1995). Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell.
Oxford.

A multi-stage, multi-source process

Dehydration of the slab provides the LIL, 10Be, B,


etc. enrichments + enriched Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic
signatures
These components, plus other dissolved silicate
materials, are transferred to the wedge in a fluid
phase (or melt?)
The mantle wedge provides the HFS and other
depleted and compatible element characteristics

Phlogopite is stable in ultramafic rocks beyond the conditions at


which amphibole breaks down
P-T-t paths for the wedge reach the phlogopite-2-pyroxene
dehydration reaction at about 200 km depth

Figure 16-11b. A proposed model for


subduction zone magmatism with
particular reference to island arcs.
Dehydration of slab crust causes hydration
of the mantle (violet), which undergoes
partial melting as amphibole (A) and
phlogopite (B) dehydrate. From Tatsumi
(1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94, 4697-4707 and
Tatsumi and Eggins (1995). Subduction
Zone Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford.

The parent magma for the calc-alkaline series is a high alumina


basalt, a type of basalt that is largely restricted to the subduction
zone environment, and the origin of which is controversial
Some high-Mg (>8wt% MgO) high alumina basalts may be primary,
as may some andesites, but most surface lavas have compositions
too evolved to be primary
Perhaps the more common low-Mg (< 6 wt. % MgO), high-Al
(>17wt% Al2O3) types are the result of somewhat deeper
fractionation of the primary tholeiitic magma which ponds at a
density equilibrium position at the base of the arc crust in more
mature arcs

Fractional crystallization thus takes place at a number of levels

Figure 16-11b. A proposed


model for subduction zone
magmatism with particular
reference to island arcs.
Dehydration of slab crust
causes hydration of the
mantle (violet), which
undergoes partial melting as
amphibole (A) and
phlogopite (B) dehydrate.
From Tatsumi (1989), J.
Geophys. Res., 94, 4697-4707
and Tatsumi and Eggins
(1995). Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell.
Oxford.

Figures not used


Figure 16-9. Major phenocryst
mineralogy of the low-K tholeiitic,
medium-K calc-alkaline, and high-K
calc-alkaline magma series. B =
basalt, BA = basaltic andesite, A =
andesite, D = dacite, R = rhyolite.
Solid lines indicate a dominant phase,
whereas dashes indicate only sporadic
development. From Wilson (1989)
Igneous Petrogenesis, AllenUnwin/Kluwer.

Figures not used


Figure 16-11b. MORB-normalized spider diagrams for selected island arc basalts.
Using the normalization and ordering scheme of Sun and McDonough (1989) with
increasing compatibility to the right. Data from BVTP. OIB data from Sun and
McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry (eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean
Basins. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 42. pp. 313-345.