You are on page 1of 47

Microwave Engineering

Unit No. 4

Microwave Tubes and


Circuits

Dr. Suvarna S. Chorage (Patil)


Professor in E&TC Engg., BVCOEW,

Contents
M- type tubes
Magnetron
Construction
Principle of operation of 8 cavity
magnetron
Hull cutoff condition
Modes of resonance
PI mode operation
o/p characteristics
application

Slow wave devices:


Helix TWT
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

Text Books

Samuel Liao, Microwave Devices and Circuits,


3rd edition, Pearson

David Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 4th


edition, Wiley

Reference Books

M. Kulkarni, Microwave and Radar engineering,


3rd edition, Umesh publication

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty Orientation Program for BE


E&TC

Microwave Tubes
Microwave
tubes

Average power

1 MW

Higher power
Limited life time
High vacuum

1 KW

1W

High potential
Microwave
semiconductor
devices

Lower weight
Smaller size
Longer life time

1mW
0.3

09/22/16

3 10
30 100
Frequency (GHz)

300

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

Two possible methods of achieving high


output power in microwave system

Low power
High power tube
semiconductor
amplifier
oscillator

09/22/16

High power
tube
oscillator

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

Important Parameters

Peak power
Average power
Efficiency
Gain
Bandwidth
Frequency
Harmonic and spurious power
Intermodulation
products
Manufacturability at low cost

(%)

Gain
(dB)

Relative
spurious
level

Relative
operating
voltage

Relative
complexity
of operation

1-10

20-50

6-15

Low

Klystron

1-5

30-70

40-60

High

Helix tube

30-120

20-40

30-50

High

Coupled
cavity tube

5-40

20-40

30-50

High

Type

Relative
BW (%)

Gridded tube

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

M-type tubes
Crossed-field tubes
DC magnetic and dc electric field are
perpendicular to each other
It employs a radial electric field and
axial magnetic field.

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

Invention of Magnetron

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

10

Magnetron

High-power oscillator
Common in radar and microwave ovens
Cathode in center, anode around outside
Strong dc magnetic field around tube
causes electrons from cathode to spiral
as they move toward anode
Current of electrons generates
microwaves in cavities around outside

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

11

Planar Magnetron

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

12

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

13

Anode cavity structure

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

14

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

15

Construction
Each cavity in the anode acts as an inductor having only
one turn and the slot connecting the cavity and the
interaction space acts as a capacitor.
These two form a parallel resonant circuit and its resonant
frequency depends on the value of L of the cavity and the
C of the slot.
The frequency of the microwaves generated by the
magnetron oscillator depends on the frequency of the RF
oscillations existing in the resonant cavities.

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

16

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

17

8 Cavity Cylindrical
Magnetron

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

18

Principle of operation
Magnetron is a cross field device as the electric field
between the anode and the cathode is radial whereas the
magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet is axial.
A high DC potential can be applied between the cathode
and anode which produces the radial electric field.
Depending on the relative strengths of the electric and
magnetic fields, the electrons emitted from the cathode and
moving towards the anode will traverse through the
interaction space
In the absence of magnetic field (B = 0), the electron travel
straight from the cathode to the anode due to the radial
electric field force acting on it
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

19

Cross-sectional view of
anode assembly

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

20

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

21

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

22

If the magnetic field strength is increased slightly, the


lateral force bending the path of the electron as given
by the path b in Fig.
If the strength of the magnetic field is made
sufficiently high then the electrons can be prevented
from reaching the anode as indicated path c in Fig.
The magnetic field required to return electrons back
to the cathode just grazing the surface of the anode is
called the critical magnetic field (Boc) or the cut off
magnetic field.

If the magnetic field is larger than the critical field (B


> Boc), the electron experiences a greater rotational
force and may return back to the cathode quite faster.
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

23

Electron trajectories in
the presence of
crossed electric and
magnetic fields

(a) no magnetic
field
(b) small magnetic
field
(c) Magnetic field =
Bc
(d) Excessive
magnetic field
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

24

Hull cut-off condition


Hull Cut-off magnetic
equation

09/22/16

Hull Cut-off Voltage


equation

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

25

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

26

Modes of
No. of cavitiesResonance
will define the phase shift between two
adjacent cavities

When is then the mode of operation is called


as mode
Where the phase difference between the adjacent
cavities is 180

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

27

This electron travels in a longest path from cathode


to the anode as indicated by a in Fig, transferring
the energy to the RF field are called as favoured
electrons and are responsible for bunching effect
and give up most of its energy before it finally
terminates on the anode surface.
An electron b is accelerated by the RF field and
instead of imparting energy to the oscillations,
takes energy from oscillations resulting in
increased velocity, such electrons are called
unfavoured electrons which do not participate in
the bunching process and cause back heating.
Every time an electron approaches the anode in
phase with the RF signal, it completes a cycle.
This corresponds to a phase shift 2.
For a dominant mode, the adjacent poles have a
phase difference of radians, this called the mode.
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

28

Lines of force in PI
mode

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

29

Performance Characteristics :
equivalent circuit of resonator in
Magnetron

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

30

Output characteristics
Output power
generated

09/22/16

Electronic efficiency

Quality factor

Resonant
Frequency
Microwave
Engineering, Faculty
Orientation Program for BE E&TC

31

Change in Resonant
Frequency
Frequency
Pushing
Frequency
Pulling

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

32

Performance
Characteristics
1. Power output: In excess of 250 kW ( Pulsed
Mode), 10 mW (UHF band), 2 mW (X band),
8 kW (at 95 GHz)
2. Frequency: 500 MHz 12 GHz
3. Duty cycle: 0.1 %
4. Efficiency: 40 % - 70 %

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

33

Applications of Magnetron
1. Pulsed radar is the single most important
application with large pulse powers.
2. Voltage tunable magnetrons are used in
sweep oscillators in telemetry and in
missile applications.
3. Fixed frequency, CW magnetrons are
used for industrial heating and
microwave ovens.

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

34

Travelling Wave Tube


For Broadband amplifier helix TWTs
(proposed by Pierce and others in 1946
) are widely used
For High average power purposes the
coupled cavity TWTs are used
Uses a helix as a slow-wave structure

Electron Gun: produces and then accelerates


an electron beam along the axis of the tube.
The surrounding static magnet provides a
magnetic field along the axis of the tube to
focus the electrons into a tight beam.
A longitudinal helix slow wave non-resonant
guide is placed at the centre of the tube that
provides a low impedance transmission line
for the RF energy within the tube.
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

36

Different slow wave


structures

a. Helical line
b. Folded-back line
c. zigzag line
d. Interdigital line
e. Corrugated
waveguide Microwave Engineering, Faculty
09/22/16

Orientation Program for BE E&TC

37

Advantages of slow wave


structures

The TWT is designed with helix delay structure


to slow the travelling wave down to or below the
speed to the electrons in the beam.
The RF signal wave injected at the input end of
the helix travels down the helix wire at the speed
of the light but the coiled shape causes the
wave to travel a much greater distance than
the electron beam.
It causes maximum interaction between the
fields and the moving electrons to form
bunching.
09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

38

Helix TWT

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

39

Helix
TWT

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

40

Interaction between electron


beam and electric field

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

41

Principle of operation
Velocity modulation : The electrons entering the
helix at zero field are not affected by the signal
wave; those electrons entering the helix at the
accelerating field are accelerated, and those at
the retarding field are deccelerated.
This velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons at regular intervals of one wavelength.
As the bunches release energy to the signal on
the helix, causing amplification

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

42

Why attenuator?
An attenuator is placed over a part of
the helix on midway to attenuate any
reflected waves generated due to the
impedance mismatch.
It is placed after sufficient length of
the interaction region so that the
attenuation of the amplified signal is
insignificant compared to the
amplification.

Specifications
Frequency Range: 3 GHz and higher
Bandwidth: about 0.8 GHz
Efficiency: 20 to 40%
Power Output: up to 10kW average
Power gain: up to 60dB

Comparison of TWTA and Klystron


Amplifier
Klystron Amplifier
1. Linear beam or
O
O type Device
device
2. Uses Resonant cavities
resonant
for input and output
circuits
3. Narrowband device
device

TWTA
1. Linear beam or
type
2. Uses non
wave circuits
3.Wideband

Applications

Medium power satellite

Higher power satellite


transponder output.

Missile

Space applications

Radar

09/22/16

Microwave Engineering, Faculty


Orientation Program for BE E&TC

47