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Heavy Oil Cementing

Jose David Vela


Principal Technical Prof. Fluid Systems
Quito, Ecuador

November 29, 2006

Good Cementing from first time


Avoid annular communication trough well life & reduce expensive workovers

GOOD
RESULTS

Cement Challenges on Thermal Recovery


Projects

Cement Challenges on Thermal Recovery


Projects

High Temperatures
Preventing Strength
Retrogression

First High Temperature Cements

Portland Cement > 230 F


Strength Retrogression
Increase in Permeability
Industry Adapted
Portland Plus 35% to 40%
Silica Flour

Properties are
virtually retained

G + 35 % SSA-1

Reduced CS and
increased porosity
& permeability

Neat G

Effective Mud Displacement to


Prevent Casing Buckling &
Shearing

Casing Buckling & Shearing

Residual Mud
Pockets can cause
casing Buckling

How to Improve?
Best Cementing
Practices
Reduce
washouts

Casing Buckling & Shearing

Casing Caliper Buckling


Measurements

Need good bond and flexible


cement properties

Solution: Thermatek

Insulating the Wellbore

Insulating the Wellbore

Benefits

Lower the Steam to Oil Ratio


Less Energy Used
More Economic Production
Marginal Fields now Economical
More Environmentally Friendly

Conduction, Convection &


Radiation HT

Insulating the Wellbore

r1
r2

Heat Transfer Rate


2 Pi L kef (T1 T2)
Q=
ln(r2 / r1)

Thermal Conductivity of Cements


kef (W/mK)

Neat Cement

0.9

MicroSphere

0.5

ZoneSeal (Foam)

0.2

Q kef
As

kef

Cyclic Loading in the Wellbore

Well Events After Primary Cementing


Cement Hydration
& hydration volume reduction

Completions
& pressure decrease inside the casing

Pressure Testing
& pressure increase inside the casing

Hydraulic Fracturing
& pressure increase

Production
& pressure/temperature increase inside
tubulars

Modes of Cement Failure

De-bonding

@ rock-cement interface
De-bonded

@ cement-casing interface

Rock
Cement

Casing

Casing

Cement
De-bonded
De-bonded

Rock

Modes of Cement Failure

Deformation

Cracks
Rock

Cement

Rock
Cement

Casing

Casing

Design and Testing

Lab Test
Damaged Cement Sheath

Resilient Sheath No Damage

Lab Testing

Material Strength and Deformation

Stress

Brittle

2
Ductile

Strain

Typical Youngs Modulus


Steel
3.0* 107 psi

Aluminum

neat
cement

1.0* 107 psi

1.5*10 psi
6

modified
cement
0.2*106 psi

Typical Youngs Modulus


Nitrogen

Steel
3.0* 107 psi

Aluminum

neat
cement

1.0* 107 psi

1.5*10 psi
6

modified
cement
0.2*106 psi

Typical Youngs Modulus


Nitrogen

Steel
3.0* 107 psi

Aluminum

neat
cement

1.0* 107 psi

1.5*10 psi
6

modified
cement
0.2*106 psi

Typical Youngs Modulus


Nitrogen

Steel
3.0* 107 psi

Aluminum

neat
cement

1.0* 107 psi

1.5*10 psi
6

modified
cement
0.2*106 psi

Typical Youngs Modulus


Nitrogen

Steel
3.0* 107 psi

Aluminum

neat
cement

1.0* 107 psi

1.5*10 psi
6

modified
cement
0.2*106 psi

Engineering Analysis

Analysis
Damaged Cement Sheath

Resilient Sheath No Damage

Lab Test

Analysis
Cement

formation

casing

WellLife Analysis

Data Needed for FEA Analysis


Rock properties
Casing properties
Cement slurry and sheath properties

Youngs Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Compressive Yield Parameters
Tensile strength
Effective volume change from cement hydration

Operation details
Completion
Stimulation
Production

Rock
Casing
Cement

Cyclic Loading

Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

Ultimate Strength (failed)

Stress

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

Ultimate Strength (failed)

Stress

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

x
Stress

Ultimate Strength (failed)

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

x
Stress

Ultimate Strength (failed)

x
x

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

x
Stress

Ultimate Strength (failed)

x
x

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

x
Stress

Ultimate Strength (failed)

x
x

Number of Cycles

Cyclic Loading
Stress in the
material should be
below a certain
value so that it can
withstand a large
number of cycles

x
Stress

Ultimate Strength (failed)

x
x

Endurance Limit

Number of Cycles