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ARAB ACADEMY FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND

MARITIME TRANSPORT
A
REPORT
ON
SAFETY CHECKS OR INSPECTION OF LIFTING TOOLS
(CRANES, SHACKLES, CHAIN BLOCKS, SLING WIRE,

HOOKS)
Written By
ESSIET, ODIONGENYENE ISAAC
Reg. Number: 12200835
Course: MARINE DIESEL III
Department: marine engineering

INTRODUCTION
Safe and successful lifting operations depend,
in large part, on the continued safety of the
lifting equipment and accessories that are used.
Failures in this kind of equipment can result in
significant or even fatal injuries. Health and
safety law therefore places a number of specific
obligations on those providing, controlling and
using lifting equipment to properly manage
these risks.
In some cases, inspections and checks should
be made on a regular basis, often weekly, but
this may be on a monthly or quarterly basis. It
should be ensure that the person carrying out a
thorough examination has such appropriate

experience of the lifting equipment to be


thoroughly examined as will enable them to
detect defects or weaknesses and to assess their
importance in relation to the safety and
continued use of the lifting equipment.
CRANES
A crane is a type of material handling
equipment that transports a load vertically and
horizontally. The lifting mechanism (hoist) is an
integral part of the crane. There are several types
of cranes which have the same fundamental
characteristics but differ in the way they are
supported (mounted): overhead cranes (bridge),
mobile cranes, or fixed cranes (tower).

Each type may have specific safety operating


requirements, but there are safety inspection
elements that are similar. Follow the
manufacturer's instructions for each type of
crane.
Periodic Inspections

Items to be inspected:
Deformed, cracked or corroded members
Loose bolts or rivets
Cracked or worn sheaves and drums
Worn, cracked or distorted parts, such as pins,
bearings, gears, rollers, etc.
Excessive wear on brake-system parts
Inaccuracies in load, wind and other indicators
Electric or fossil fuel motors

SHACKLES
A shackle, also known as a gyve, is a U-shaped
piece of metal secured with a clevis pin or bolt
across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured
with a quick-release locking pin mechanism.
Using Shackles:
Use shackles for their
intended purpose only
Apply load slowly. DO NOT
JERK!
Do not apply angular loads
to round pin shackles
De-rate screw pin and bolt
type shackles when angular
load is applied
Inspect shackles before

Shackles come in three basic types. They


are:
1. Round Pin (Class I)
2. Screw Pin (Class II)
3. Bolt Type (Class III)
Inspection:
Check distortions such as
bends, twists and spread
Check for peening, nicks
and gouges
Check for cracks or
corrosion
Check thread for damage
Inspect for wear reduction
of 5% or greater in the
diameter of the pin or bow.

HOOKS
A lifting hook is a device for grabbing and lifting
loads by means of a device such as a hoist or
crane. A lifting hook is usually equipped with a
safety latch to prevent the disengagement of the
lifting wire rope sling, chain or rope to which the
load
is attached.
A hook
may have one or more builtin pulleys to amplify the lifting force.
INSPECTION
The safety catch should be in place
and functioning correctly.
The hook should be checked for
any distortion, cracking
andexcessive wear or corrosion.

NOTE: The wear on the bearing surface of the


hook
shouldnot exceed
8% of the nominal dimension.
Check that the opening of the hook is within
themanufacturers parameters. If the hook is
opened excessivelyit is a sign that it has been
point loaded or overloaded.
Moving parts such as release cams should be
checked for freemovement.
If the hook is a ball bearing swivel hook check
that the hookis swivelling freely and that the
bearing is not making anyunusual noises.
Unusual noises are often a sign of
bearingfatigue or bearing failure.
If the hook has a threaded machined shank
ensure that thethread is in good order and that
the nut is turning freely on the thread.

CHAIN BLOCK
Hand operated manual chain hoists (also
commonly known as a chain block or block and
tackle) are a piece of portable lifting equipment
available in versatile configurations; they are very
adaptable to the many alterative working
scenarios and working environments including
permanent and temporary installations.
Pre-use inspection
The operator shall perform a pre-use inspection,
if any deficiencies are found the equipment will
be taken out of
service and the supervisor
notified.
1.Visually inspect all load chains for gross

3.The load does not exceed the load limit on the


warning label.
4.Check that motions are smooth and regular with
no hesitations, vibration, binding, unusual noise, or
other irregularity.
5.Chain is not kinked or damaged.
Annual inspection
The Annual inspection may be performed with the
hoist in its normal location and do not require the
hoist to be dismantled. Covers and other items
normally supplied to allow inspection of
components should be opened or removed for
these inspections.
Inspection items
1.Operating mechanisms checked for
maladjustment and listened to for unusual sounds

3. Excessive wear, corrosion, cracks, or distorted


parts in the following:
1.Load blocks
2.Suspension housings
3.Hand chain wheels
4.Chain attachments
5. Clevises
6. Yokes
7. Gears
8. Bearings
9. Pins
10.Rollers
11. Locking and clamping devices
4. Damage or excessive wear on hook-retaining
nuts or collars and pins and welds or rivets used
to secure the retaining members.

5. Excessive wear or damage on load sprockets,


idler sprockets, hand chain wheel, and drums or
sheaves shall be checked for damage or excessive
wear.
SLINGS WIRES
A specific procedure for sling inspection is the
best safeguard against injury, death and property
damage. It is important that you employ a three
stage, level of inspection to ensure that slings are
inspected with the appropriate frequency. It is also
important that all inspections must be done by
trained and qualified personnel.

Thorough inspection of slings and


attachments. Items to look for include:
Missing or illegible sling identification.
Acid or caustic burns.
Melting or charring of any part of the sling.
Holes, tears, cuts or snags.
Broken or worn stitching in load bearing splices.
Excessive abrasive wear.
Knots in any part of the sling.
Discoloration and brittle or stiff areas on any
part of the sling.
Pitted, corroded, cracked, bent, twisted, gouged
or broken fittings.
Other conditions that cause doubt as to
continued use of a sling.
Where any such damage or deterioration is
present, remove the sling or attachment from

CONCLUSION
All equipment should be of good construction,
sound material, adequate strength, free from
patent defect. Prior to being used for the first
time, the equipment should be thoroughly
examined by a competent person and certified to
this effect. These inspection should be carry out
for all lifting tools such as: cranes, chain blocks,
sling wires, shackles and hooks. Lifting equipment
must be risk assessed and procedures put in place
to reduce the risks associated with its use.