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# Design of Tension Members

## Structural members that are subjected to axial

tensile force (truss members, cables in
suspension bridges, bracing for buildings,) are
tension members.
The strength is the cross-sectional area is the
total determinant of the member capacity.
section (angle, wide-flange, or channel section)
with design strength greater than or equal to the
maximum factored design tension load acting on
it.

## What is the maximum P?

tsd

N trd

Design Continued.
The design value of the axial tension force
Nt,sd at each cross-section shall satisfy:
Nt,sd < Nt,Rd
Where Nt,Rd is the design tension
resistance of the cross-section, taken as
the smaller of:

Design Continued

Design Continued...
Effective area, Aeff
The net area of a cross-section or element
section shall be taken as its gross area less
appropriate deductions for all holes and other
openings.

Continued
Effective area, Aeff
Provided that the fastener holes are not
staggered, the total area to be deducted for
the fastener holes shall be the maximum sum
of the sectional areas of the holes in any
cross section perpendicular to the member
axis.

Aeff..
When the fastener holes are staggered, the total
area to be deducted for fastener holes shall be
the greater of:
The deduction for non staggered holes
The sum of the sectional area of all holes in any
diagonal or zig-zag line extending progressively
across the member or part of the member, less
s2t/(4p) for each gauge space, p, in the chain of
holes,

Aeff
Where
s is the pitch, the spacing of the centers of
two consecutive holes in the chain
measured parallel to the member axis.
P is the spacing between the centers of
two holes measured perpendicular to the
member axis.
t is the thickness

## Design of Steel Tension Members

Yielding in the gross section:
P

Max stress Fy

Max stress Fu

Design Continued
Equations for strength of tension members
(LRFD):
a) For yielding in the gross section:
t n t y g

P F A

## b) For fracture in the net section:

tPn tFuAe

Variable Definitions
Resistance factor,

t :

## = 0.90 for yielding

= 0.75 for fracture

## Fy = Yield Strength (p. 2-24 LRFD)

Fu = Tensile or Ultimate strength

## (p. 2-24 LRFD)

Design Requirements
Ag Gross cross-sectional area
Ae Effective net area
If tension load is transmitted directly to each of the
cross-sectional elements by fasteners or welds:
Ae = An
An = Net cross-sectional area
(gross-section minus bolt holes)

Design Requirements
If tension load transmitted through some but
not all of the cross-sectional elements:
by fasteners,
Ae = AnU
by welds,
Ae = AgU

or

Ae = AU

## Where U is a reduction coeficient

Examples
Effective area determination

## Tension Analysis Example(01)

Determine the factored strength of a