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19th

Century
Philippines
Under Spain

Unstable Spain
1. Turbulent year of King

Ferdinand VII reign from
1808-1833

a. Despotism vs. Liberalism
b. 3 Carlist Wars 1833-1876
c. 4 constitutions from 18341862

d. 28 parliamentary elections
e. Installation of 529 ministers
f.

Party bickering, revolutions,
and other forms of political
upheavals

50 governor generals from 1835-1897 b. Average term of office was 1 year and 3 months c.Appointed Oidor/Jurist for the Royal Audencia and his family took the long and leisurely trip to the Cape of Good Hope for 6 months only to relaized when he arrived that a new appointee is already seated. Periodic shifting of colonial policies and changing of colonial rules a. From 1853-1854 there were four assigned governor generals . .Political Instability 1.

Madrid to Manila situational domino effect 6. Frequent changing slowed down the political and economic growth of the country 2. Unsupervised political and economic performance of assigned leaders in the Philippines . Corrupting opportunities for a leader to take advantage of his rule 4. Short and unstable term of office led to the failure of any capable and energetic leader to function well.effects 1. Systematic failure 7. Uninspiring political condition to perform well 4. Indifference of leaders to the political condition of the Philippines 5. 3.

Corrupt officials Golden rule Miguel Cervantes Decaden t rule Rafael de Izquierdo Lope de Vega Jose Malcamp o Calderon dela Barca Fernando Primo de Rivera El Greco Valeriano Weyler St. Theresa of Avila Camilo de Poolavieja .

Rafael de Izquierdo • Hated for sentencing the death of the GOMBURZA during the year 1872 Jose Malcampo • Good military in Muslim Mindanao but a weak administrator .

Fernando Primo de Rivera • Ruled for 2 terms and involved in casino bribes Valeriano Weyler • Branded as the Cuban Butcher in Cuba • Received bribes of diamond from the Chinese • Able soldier but heartless governor .

Rizal as an apology Other • Many assigned in the Latin American countries are degenerate. cruel. penniless. and pretenders.Camilo de Polavieja • Able soldier but detested for executing Dr. Jose Rizal and for loosing the Philippines to USA. protégés. . • His sash and sword were presented by Gov. jobseekers. Blanco to the family of J.

Spanish writer and government official revealed the fact that ignorant barbers. . Tomas de Comyn. In 1810. rough sailors and soldiers were appointed. and lackeys were appointed provincial governors  For district magistrates and garrison commanders.

Bitterness brought about the given representation to Cuba and Puerto Rico from 1876-1898. .” b. Filipino representation during 1820-23 and 1834-37 were not fruitful as the leaders were less energetic and devoted in parliamentary work. Graciano L. b. 3. Abolition of galleon trade 2.“We want representation in the legislative chamber so that our aspirations maybe known to the mother country and its government.Participation in the Spanish Cortez 1. Jaena. Ventura delos Reyes was one of the 184 signers of the democratic Constitution of 1812. Abolition in 1837 a. Napoleonic invasion and representation in the Spanish Cortez from 1810-1813 a.

Enjoyment of freedom of speech.Denial of Human Rights 1. Inconsistency in the practice as observed by Sinibaldo de Mas . freedom of the press. freedom of association and other human rights. Constitution of 1812 . .Liberals guarded for fear that it will be abolished by the Spanish monarch 2.

such as combining our claim for liberty for ourselves.“Why do we fall into an anomaly. and our wish to impose our law on remote peoples? Why do we deny to others the benefit which we desire to our fatherland?” .

No equality before the law  “All men irrespective of color and race.  Filipinos as inferior and as subjects of the King. .  Maybe equal before God but not in law and justice. are children of God and as such they are brothers. equal before God”  Issue of Christ’s precept of the brotherhood of all men under the fatherhood of God.

 Spanish Penal Code imposed heavier penalties on native filipinos or mestizos and lighter penalties to Spaniards  In the communication exchange between Dr. the latter mentioned his irritation in the blatant injustice embodied in the law. Legal inequalities  Leyes de Indias was promulgated by Christian kings to protect the natives and promote their welfare. F. Blumentritt. . Rizal and Prof.

 Wealth.Maladministration of justice  Court of Injustice of the inept.  There were a lot of noble victims of miscarriage of justice.  Justice was costly. venal and ignorant of law. social prestige and color of the skin are considered as factors to win the case.  Filipinos who are poor had no access to the court. partial and slow. .  Justice delayed is justice denied.

color of his hair. height of his nose.Racial Discrimination  “Brown-skinned and flat nose indios.”  Chongo vs. Burgos on misconception that the merit of a man lies on the pigment of his skin. and the shape of his skull – “Why for instance shall a young man strive to rise in the profession of law or of theology. bangus  According to Fr. when he can vision no future for hmself save that of obscurity and jaunty unconcern?” .

Arbiter of morals 4. J.It has 2 faces .Frailocracy   Union of the church and state Functions 1. Rizal. Fanaticism 3. Guardian of peace and order  Filipino views: 1. Superintendent of public works 6. Obscurantism 2. Supervisor of local election 2. Oppression . Inspector of schools and taxes 3. Censor of books and comedias 5. they are enemies of liberal reforms and modern progress in the country .According to Dr.

Other public works . Building of ships in the shipyards 4. hospitals. Construction of schools.Forced Labor  Polo or compulsory labor 1. buildings  Royal Decree of July 12. Repair of roads and bridges 3. 1883  Polistas are from 16 to 60 years old for 40 days and later reduced to 15 days every year.  Spaniards are to render work but was not implemented in the Philippines  Falla is exemption from polo 2.

Spaniards are not compelled to work 2.Filipino hated polo 1. 2 pesetas equivalent to 50 cents 3. Caused inconvenience and sufferings to people .

Haciendas troubles  Friars obtained royal titles of ownership from the Spanish King  Hotbeds of revolts  In 1768 Governor Anda recommended to Madrid the sale of friar estate for he saw the danger it could give to Spain but was ignored. .

 Crisostomo to Elias – “is a weapon in the hands of a madman in a defenseless multitude.Guardia Civil  Spanish Constabulary  Those in the Philippines were the opposite of the disciplined Guardia Civil in Spain. and belongings of the natives Dr. and power. chickens. exposed the ruthlessness the guardia civil to honest men. maltreating the innocent people. authorities. rape women. and loot the carabaos.   Rampant abuse of power.”  There was a proposal to improve the military organization by recruiting educated and principled men who respect the limitations and responsibilities. Rizal and his mother suffered from the cruelties of the guardia civil  In Noli me Tangere. .