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SOIL

LIQUEFACTION
Cristian Camilo Daz Quevedo
Civil Engineering
6-B
2166272

WHICH IT IS SOIL LIQUEFACTION?

Liquefaction is defined as
the transformation of a
granular material from a
solid state to a liquefied
state as a result of
increased
pore
water
pressure.

It is more likely to occur in


loose liquefaction saturated
or unsaturated moderately
granular soils with poor,
such
as
sedimented
drainage sand or sand and
gravel containing sediments
waterproof seams.

LIQUEFACTION PROCESS
EARTH

CONDITION OF SOIL TO BE
LIQUEFIABLE

Seed and Idriss (1982) considers


that a soil can liquefy if:

The percentage by weight of particles


<0.005 mm is less than 15%
LL <35
w / LL> 0.9
This criterion was known as Chinese
criterion.

Studies of seismic liquefaction


Seed (1966) led to the following
conditions apply:

If
pore
pressure
induced
dynamic or cyclic action of the
earthquake reaches the value of
the confining pressure, soil reach
its initial liquefaction
If sand subjected to cyclic action
reaches 20% strain is reached
the total liquefaction.

CALCULATION

The
limited
knowledge
on
this
phenomenon is due largely to two
factors:

Difficulty
in
observing
their
characteristics under real conditions.

Complexity of the phenomenon, for


besides being the result of a seismic
action highly variable nature, induced
in the ground a strongly nonlinear and
hysteretic behavior, with strong
degradation
of
mechanical
soil
characteristics of each particular
cycle generating pressures neutral in
the sample under seismic action.

STUDY

Earthquake-induced liquefaction is one


of the major contributors to urban
seismic
risk.
The
shocks
cause
increased water pressure in the pores
which reduces the effective stress, and
therefore decreases the shear strength
of the sand. If a crust of dry soil or
waterproof covering, excess water may
sometimes arise on the surface through
cracks in the top layer, dragging the
liquified sand process, resulting sand
boils, commonly called "volcanoes of
sand".

LIQUEFACTION INDUCED
EARTHQUAKE

Quicksand they occur when an


area of loose sand that is
saturated with water is stirred.
When the water is trapped in
the block of sand can not
escape, the ground liquefies
and loses its ability to support
weights. Quicksand can be
formed by a rising flow of
groundwater (as it comes from a
natural spring), or because of
earthquakes.

QUICKSAND

Calls quicks clays fast or


marine
clays,
is
a
particularly highly sensitive
type of clay which, when
disturbed has the tendency
to change their status from
a relatively rigid to a liquid
state. At rest, the quick
clays look a hypersaturated
gel.

QUICK CLAYS

They
consist
of
displacement saturated by
water flowing into the
deep sea sediments. An
example
of
this
phenomenon
occurred
during the Grand Banks
earthquake
of
1929
occurred
on
the
continental shelf off the
coast of Newfoundland.

TURBIDITY CURRENTS

It involves filling out a crossword puzzle of


two people having a time between 10 to 20
minutes, it is recommended not copied
from another, and to let them see will not
be able to compete.

Your partnerisfoundat his side,on the


right side.

ACTIVITY

The greatest situations in which these phenomena occur are


earthquakes, such phenomena charge many structural damage and in
cases where no provision may be up human casualties , so you need
to have more stuff in the study of this phenomenon . The construction
of buildings on land of low cohesion provide the conditions for this
phenomenon , before this more complete intervention is required
because if it is determined that land are most useful for building could
potentially prevent this effect caused by earthquakes, which are not
always resulting in immediate catastrophe and is very fast but on
many roads or buildings of great magnitude is presented constantly by
the force exerted by the weight of these ways .

CONCLUSIN