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Intelligent systems

Intelligent systems

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Lecture Eight

Dan Humpert

Associate Professor

University of Cincinnati

Mechanical Engineering

Agenda

Introduction

The

Programming, Genetic Algorithms, Genetic

Programming, Differential Evolution, Particle

Swarm Optimization and Swarm Intelligence.

Genetic

Algorithms

Particle Swarm Optimization

Swarm Intelligence

Evolutionary Computation

algorithms that utilize simulated evolution to some

degree as a means to solve a variety of problems.

Simulated evolution means having the ability to

evolve a population of potential solutions such that

weaker solutions are removed and replaced with

incrementally better or stronger solutions. The

algorithms follow the principle of natural selection.

Each algorithm is biologically inspired and is based

on the simulation of natural systems.

Chapter 7 Evolutionary

Computation

Chapter Outline

Evolutionary

Strategies

Introduced evolution strategies as a means to

optimize vectors of real value physical systems

such as airfoils.

Population size was two members: the parent and

the child. The child member was modified via a

form of mutation and which ever member was

more fit became the parent of the next generation.

Mutation, Recombine, Select

As shown below the child member is more fit than

the parent in the first generation which results in it

being the parent in the next generation.

Evolutionary

Programming

Evolved populations of finite state machines (FSM)

An FSM is a sequential logic device that goes from

one state to anotheran example would be an

elevator.

Can be modeled as a graph with state transitions.

Example: the goal is to evolve a parsing finite state

machine that can recognize patterns such as aabb,

aabbaabb, aabbaabbaabb etc.

Genetic

Algorithms

Expanded the number of operators from just mutation

to crossover, inversion, and exchange, etc.

Used 8 bit and 16 bit string representation.

Genetic

Algorithms (Continued)

Genetic

Programming

Instead of bit-strings (Genetic Algorithms) or real

values (Evolutionary Strategies), genetic programming

evolves a population of computer programs. It uses sexpressions (tree structures)

Fell out of favor in the late 1990s but has recently

become very popular in computer science research.

Example: using the crossover operator to create a

new S-expression

Introduced

Uses vector differences as a means to

perturb the vector and probe the search

space.

DE includes two tunable parameters: F, the

weighting factor and CR, the crossover

probability (multi-point crossover occur)

Differential Evolution

Newer stochastic

population-based

method.

The (difference of

vectors seven and

nine) multiplied by the

weighting factor are

added to random

vector zero to create

a new vector.

That vector and the

original vector

undergo multi-point

crossover if

determined by

crossover rate.

Particle

Inspired by birds flocking and fish schooling.

A population of particles (n-dimensional vectors) with

position and velocity move in random directions

searching n-dimensional space

Keep track of global best particlethe center of the

swarm. As other particles become the best particle they

become the center of the swarm.

Very effective for a variety of optimization problems.

Swarm

Intelligence

Based on Multi-Agent Systems where multiple

agents within an internal system environment such

as a smart house use cooperative control to work

together and communicate much like a PSO.

A multi-agent system that can evolve, update and

learn from its swarm.

The intelligent system evolves and grows more

intelligent as the swarm operates.

Genetic Algorithms

algorithm is the genetic algorithm.

Indeed over the last thirty years, this whole classification of

evolution computation algorithms is now called Genetic

Algorithms by most engineers instead of its correct

designation.

The only change is the recent phenomenal growth of Particle

Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Swarm Intelligence (SI).

So we will focus on genetic algorithms and PSO/SI for the

rest of the lecture.

using genetic algorithms.

For this application, genetic algorithms do provide an excellent

adaptive search method but do not always provide for an

optimal solution.

Genetic algorithms do not fit the definition of Optimal for a

search engine.

They provide excellent optimized solutions. However, there are

many solutions that could be better.

In particular, a genetic algorithm could end up in a local

optimum versus the global optimum for a particular search.

Representation

work was bit strings. However, since Holland, many

different representation schemes have been used.

For genetic algorithms, Hollands bit strings have been

shown to the most popular and widely used

chromosomal representation.

Many industrial engineering applications use other

representations such as ordered lists (for bin packing),

embedded lists (for factory scheduling problems), and

variable-element lists (for semiconductor layout).

as the first generation. This pool should be diverse.

2.) The fitness of each member is computed. Fitness is a

measure of how well each individual solves the problem. The

higher (or in terms of cost, the lower) the fitness the better the

solution in relative to other members.

3.) There is some selection process for selecting members;

typically either roulette wheel or elitist. In elitist selection, the

higher fit members are selected forcing the lesser fit to die off.

4.) We now have a number of members that have the right to

propagate their genetic material to the next generation.

The next step is to recombine these members to form the next

generation. Recombination uses genetic operators.

Genetic Operators

genetic operators.

We have seen the crossover operator. Using

crossover, the parents are combined by picking a

crossover point and then swapping the tails. Doublepoint crossover swaps the genetic material in from one

point to the next.

For bit string, an inversion operator, inverts the bits in a

string of chromosome; the range of bits are flipped.

For bit string, the mutation operation, simply mutates or

flips a chosen bit of chromosome.

23

algorithm arrives at the solution and terminates the

process.

If the population lacks diversity, and members of the

population become similar, there is a loss in the

ability to search. We terminate if the average fitness

is greater then 99% of the maximum fitnessno

diversity. This means the algorithm is stuck in a local

maximum and needs to be restarted.

24

diversity will be maintained in the population.

With elitist selection, using only the crossover

operation and picking only the best parents each

time, diversity can be lost. So the algorithm

periodically uses some form of mutation or inversion

to maintain diversity.

This is called mutation rate. An example mutation

rate can be after every five crossover operations.

If after 24 operations (four sets of five crossover and

one mutation) does not maintain diversity, than an all

gene mutation can be done.

25

We are a traveling salesman and we are given a list of

cities (companies within cities) that we need to travel

to. The goal is to find the shortest possible travel route

thus minimizing the costs associated with travel.

Genetic Algorithms have been found to be very

successful at very quickly determining an excellent if

not optimal route.

For twenty cities, it can do this in less than 100

iterations. Our example will use seven cities, A-G

We

Swap Mutation and Ordered Crossover.

Swap Mutation

Assume two parents:

[B, G, C, A, F, E, D] and [F, A, E, G, D, C, B]

Suppose our random selection process says swap

F with B in the first parent and G with C in the

second parent. The two children would be:

[F, G, C, A, B, E, D] and [F, A, E, C, D, G, B]

For

the same parents as before:

[B, G, C, A, F, E, D] and [F, A, E, G, D, C, B]

Ordered crossover says swap the last three cities.

This gives two children:

[#, #, #, #, D, C, B] and [#, #, #, #, F, E, D]

Starting from the cut from the first parent, fill in the

not already used cities gives [F, E, G, A, D, C, B]

and the second child is starting from the cut of the

second parent [C, B, A, G, F, E, D]

Once

defined and once the crossover and mutation

operators are defined, it is relatively simple to

plug in the earlier genetic algorithm to solve

the problem very quickly and very accurately.

We will also apply TSP to Particle Swarm

Optimization next.

Population-

based technique

that uses

particle swarms

to wander the

search space.

Particles swarm

around the most

fit particle.

32

another in N-dimensional space where N is the size of the

solution vector.

A set of equations is used to implement a flocking behavior

which gives the particles some amount of freedom to search

the N-dimensional space.

A particle within the swarm exists as an object that contains

the N-dimensional vector; a vector velocity; the fitness for the

current vector; and a vector representing the personal best

position found so far.

Each iteration updates best position and velocity for the

swarm and particles.

Flow of PSO

created. Fitness of each is evaluated, personal best

vector is evaluated and global best particle is

determined.

2.) If the program does not terminate, the velocity of

each particle is updated and each particles position is

updated. Fitness of each is evaluated and personal

best vector and global best particle is determined. This

process continues till the program terminates.

A very quick, efficient, and accurate program similar to

that of Genetic Algorithms.

PSO: TSP

solution using PSO.

Many have tried in the late 1990s and early 2000s either

with good results but slow times compared to Genetic

Algorithms or fast times but inaccurate being caught in a

local minimum.

Many recent papers have been written that have

overcome the problems. The papers all use a similar

algorithm to Jones in Artificial Intelligence but have

variations on improving the communications and

movement of the individuals of the swarm.

Swarm Intelligence

within an internal system environment such as a smart

house use cooperative control to work together and

communicate much like a PSO.

A multi-agent system that can evolve, update and learn

from its swarm.

The intelligent system evolves and grows more intelligent

as the swarm operates.

The combination of Cooperative Control and Swarm

Intelligence make this a very exciting research field for

Intelligent Systems.

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