Computer Basics


Definition of the computer

A computer is an electronic device that process data, converting it into information that is useful to people. Any computer regardless of its type is controlled by programmed instructions, which give the machine a purpose and tell it what to do.


Computer for individual user
• 1. Desktop Computer • 2. Workstations • 3. Notebook
Computers • 4. Tablet Computer • 5. Handheld Computers • 6. Smart Phones


Computer for individual user

• 1. Desktop Computer:- The most common type
of personal computer is the desktop computer- a pc that is designed to sit on a desk or table.


Computer for individual user

• 2. Workstations:- A workstation is a specialized
single user computer that typically has more power and feat user than a standard desktop PC.


Computer for individual user

• 3. Notebook Computers: - Notebook computer
have the power and feature of desktop PCS but are light and portable.


Computer for individual user

• 4. Tablet Computer:- The tablet PC is the

newest development in portable, fully- featured computers. It offers all the functionality of a notebook PC.


Computer for individual user

• 5. Handheld Computers:- Handheld personal

computers are computing devices small enough to fit in your hand. A popular type of handheld computer is the personal digital assistant (PDA).


Computer for individual user

• 6. Smart Phones:-Some cellular phones double

as miniature PCs. Because these phones offer advanced feature not typically found in cellular phones, they are sometime called smart phones.


Computer for organizations

• • • •

Network Servers Mainframe Computer Mini Computers Super computer


Computer for organizations

• Network Servers:-Today most organizations

network is based on personal computer. Individual users have their own desktop computers, which are connected to one or more centralized computer called network servers.


Computer for organizations

• Mainframe Computer:- Mainframe computer

are used in large organizations such as insurance companies and banks where many people frequently need to use the same data.

• •


Computer for organizations

• Mini Computers:- The capabilities of a

minicomputer are somewhere between those of mainframes and personal computers. For this reasons mini computer are offer called midrange computers.


Computer for organizations

• Super computer:- It is the most powerful

computer and physically they are some of the largest. It process huge amounts of data and calculating one trillion per second.


Computer in Society

§ Home:     

Communication Business work done at home School work Entertainment Finances

§ Education: § Small Business: § Industry:   

Design Shipping Process Population Taxes Military Police

§ Government:    

§ Health care: -


Computer in Society

§ Home: - Home user needs their computer to

    

Communication Business work done at home School work Entertainment Finances


Computer in Society

§ Education: - Educators see computer technology as an essential learning requirement for all students, starting as early as preschool.


Computer in Society

§ Small Business: - Many of today’s
successful small companies simply could not exist without computer technology.


Computer in Society

§ Industry: - Computer are applied to industry.
   

Design Shipping Process


Computer in Society

§ Government: - Today computer play a
crucial part in nearly every government agency.
    

Population Taxes Military Police


Computer in Society

§ Health care: -


The part of computer system

• • • •

1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4. User


The part of computer system

• 1. Hardware:- The mechanical devices that

make up the computers are called hardware. Hardware is any part of the computer you can touch.


The part of computer system

• 2. Software: - Software is set of instruction that
makes the computer perform tasks. In other word, software tells the computer what to do.


The part of computer system

• 3. Data:- Data consists of individual facts or •

pieces of information that by themselves may not make much sense to a person.


The part of computer system

• 4. User:- People are the computers operators,

also known as user. It can be argued that some computer systems are complete without a person’s involvement; however no computer is totally autonomous.


The information processing cycle

• • • •

Input Processing Output Storage


The information processing cycle

• Input:- During this part of the cycle the computer
accepts data from some sources, such the user or a program for processing.


The information processing cycle

• Processing:- During this part of the cycle the

computer processing components perform action on the data, based on instructions from the user or a program.


The information processing cycle

• Output:- Here the computer may be required to
display the result of its processing.


The information processing cycle

• Storage:- In this step the computer permanently
stores the result of its processing on a disk, tape, or some other kind of storage medium.


Essential computer hardware

• • • •

1. Processor 2. Memory 3. Input and output 4. Storage


Essential computer hardware

• 1. Processor:- The procedure that raw data into
useful information is called processor. The processor is like the brain of the computer


Essential computer hardware
• 2. Memory:- In a computer, memory is one or more sets of
chips that store data and program instruction, either temporarily or permanently. The two types of memory work in very different ways and perform distinct function. § RAM (Random Access Memory) § ROM (Red-Only Memory)

Units of measure for computer memory
Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte


Approximate value Actual value (byte) (bytes)
1000 1000000 1000000000 1000000000000 1024 1048576 1073741824 1099511627776


Essential computer hardware

• 3. Input and output:- Input devices accept
• • • • • •

data and instruction from the user and output devices return processed data to the user. Input devices Output device Keyboard Monitor Mouse Speaker Scanner Printer Microphone Digital camera


Essential computer hardware

• 4. Storage:- To be really useful, a computer also
needs a place to keep program files and related date when they are not in use. This place name is Storage devices. Magnetic storage: -

• • Optical storage : -


Essential computer hardware

• Magnetic storage: § round, flat object that spins around its center. Exam: Floppy disk  Hard disk


Essential computer hardware

• Optical storage : -

§ In addition to magnetic storage, nearly ever computer sold today include at least one form of optical storagedevices that use laser to read data from or write data to the reflective surface of an optical disc. Exam:    



Software brings the machine life

• System software • Application software •


Software brings the machine life

• System software:- System software is any

• • •

program that controls the computer’s hardware or that can be used to maintain the computer in some way so that it runs more efficiently. There are three types of system software: Operating system Network system Utilities system


Software brings the machine life

• Application software:- Application software

tells the computer how to accomplish specific tasks, such as word processing or drawing for the user. Some of the major categories of these application include

• • • • • • • • •

Word processing Spreadsheets Database management Presentation program Graphics program Multimedia authoring application Entertainment and education software Web design tools

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