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Chapter

One
The Highways
and
its
Development

1-1Brief History of Roads

1-1Brief History of Roads


Early roads with hard surfaces were found in the land of
Mesopotamia. These roads were constructed as early as
3,500 B.C. Another stone surface roads were also found in
the Mediterranean island of Crete, similarly by the Mayans,
Aztecs and the Incas of Central South America.

1-1Brief History of Roads


The early road systems were constructed primarily for the
following purposes:
1. For the movement of armies in their conquest and for
defense against invasion.
2. For transport of food and trade of goods between
neighboring towns and cities.

1-1Brief History of Roads


The Romans, who discovered cement, expanded
their vast empire through extensive road networks
radiating in many directions from the capital city of
Rome. Many of the roads built by the Romans still
exist even after 2,000 years.

1-1Brief History of Roads


Characteristically, Roman roads were laid on three courses
A layer of small broken stones.
Followed by layer of small stones mixed with mortar

and then compacted firmly.


Wearing course of massive stone blocks promptly set
and bedded with cement mortar.

1-1Brief History of Roads


During the 17th century under the reign of Napoleon the
Great, France made a great stride on road buildings. Jerome
Tresaguet (1716-1796) the famous French Engineer introduced
new methods of construction maintenance of stone roads. He
improved the crown , the drainage, and the grade of the road,
including the stone foundation by reducing the depth of broken
stones to 25 centimeters. Tresaguet made it possible for
Napoleon to build the massive highways of France, He was
accredited the title Father of modern road building.

1-1Brief History of Roads


Thirty years later, a Scottish Engineer born in Westminster
Abbey, Thomas Telford (1757-1834), president and founder of the
Institute of Civil Engineer, introduced some improvements in the
construction methods of Jerome Tresaguet. The road foundation
course of Telford was made of stones having 3 inches minimum
thickness, 5 inches breadth and 7 inches height. Smaller stones
were driven by mauls on top voids and trued the surfaces by
breaking the projecting points. Telford employed a flat sub-grade,
providing slight crown using stones of varying sizes.

1-1Brief History of Roads


England followed the ongoing highway development
started by France. The Macadam road concept named after
John Louden Mac Adam (1755-1836), another famous
Scottish Engineer road builder and contemporary of Telford,
was developed and widely accepted. The invention of road
building equipment enhances the development of roads in
Europe. In 1858, Eli Blake invented the first stone crusher
weighing 30 tons was introduced in France by its inventor,
Aveling and Porter.

1-2 Early Laws that Regulates


Roadway

1-2 Early Laws that Regulates Roadway


The early Saxon Laws imposes three mandatory
duties for the people to perform, namely:
To repair the roads and bridges.
To repair the castles and the garrisons.
To aid rapel invasions.

1-2 Early Laws that Regulates Roadway


After the Norman Conquest of England, it was
decreed that:
The Kings Highway is sacred. Anybody who occupies

any portion thereof, by exceeding the boundaries of his


land, is considered to have encroached on the king
himself. Roads are for public use. All persons who want
to use them may do so.

1-2 Early Laws that Regulates Roadway


After the Norman Conquest of England, it was
decreed that:
Property owners adjoining the road were required to

drain the road, clip any bordering hedges, and refrain


from plowing and planting trees, shrubs, or bushes
closer than the specified distance from the center of the
road.

1-2 Early Laws that Regulates Roadway


It was made clear that the government concept towards
the use of roads includes upholding the right of the public
to use them without interference. Since the road is intended
for the benefit of the people, in return, it becomes their duty
to protect and maintain the roadway.

1-3 Highways in
the

Philippines

1-3 Highways in the Philippines


In the early part of 1900, transportation this country
depended largely on trails, waterways, railroads, earth roads
and partially graveled roads. Highways in the Philippines at
that time is nothing more than a dream to most Filipinos. The
American government initiated the development of roadways in
the Philippines, connecting towns, cities and provinces. The
popular Macadam road type was introduced. It gained wide
acceptance because of the abundant supply of stones and gravel.

1-3 Highways in the


Philippines
After the Second World War, the new independent
Philippine Government, continued the rehabilitation and
construction of roads and bridges, through the reparations
and war damages paid by the Japanese government. Other
financial grants and aids received from the U.S.
Government were used in the construction and
rehabilitation of roads and bridges.

1-3 Highways in the


Philippines
Fifty years later, major highways and expressways were
constructed through the financial assistance and loans from
foreign banks. Alongside with the industrialization program of
the government, vehicles of various types and sizes started
flooding the roadways. Recent Land Transportation records
revealed that, more than 80,000 brand new vehicles were added
to their lists every year. At an average of 5.00 meters road
occupancy by these vehicles, the DPWH must open 400
kilometers new roads every year.

1-3 Highways in the


Philippines
This data did not include yet the roadway for second
hand or surplus assembled cars. With this statistical report,
solution to traffic problems is nowhere insight. Traffic
problems are expected to worsen year after year.

1-3 Highways in the


Philippines
The year 1960 to early part of 1980 was considered and
automobile age. Cars were no longer regarded as luxury item
but a necessity in transporting people and goods, a necessity
for survival. Government new concept of development is to
get the farmers out of the mud. It was during this decade that
road construction becomes a matter of priority of the
government under the slogan: This nation is on Wheels.

1-4

Planning
Difficulties

1-4 Planning Difficulties


Development and maintenance of roads and highways is
a continuing process alongside with the technological
advancement. New equipment and management
techniques revolutionized the construction and
maintenance methods. Advance knowledge in the field of
soils , highway materials , and designs were adopted for
reliability and economic considerations.

1-4 Planning Difficulties


Engineers are conscious of the need for the roadways to be safe,
useful, and attractive. This needs include improvement of the
roadside, erosion control, and noise abatement. They are aware
of the fact that highways are vital to countrys development.
Unfortunately, highway planners are confronted with problems
categorized as follows:
1. Financial
2. Political, and
3. Technical

1-4 Planning Difficulties


The present economic condition is related to the
government budgetary expenditures for payment of foreign
debt amortization amounting to billions of pesos a month.
Appropriations of funds for road constructions and
maintenance, meet severe difficulties that sometimes,
highway development plans are shelves temporarily for
lack of funds.

1-4 Planning Difficulties


Comprehensive road development plans that are
carefully studied by technical experts are twisted, or flexed
down by political muscles, to suit political interests. Roads
and highways plan were either; deferred, amended or
realigned for political reasons. As a consequence, different
laws with conflicting purposes and procedures impede or
obstruct implementations causing delay or no action at all.

1-4 Planning Difficulties


Politicians now control DPWH projects as their source of
political funds. Highway district engineers qualification is
simply subservience to the politician. Do what I say or get
out of my district. Listing of projects given to the district
engineer has the corresponding name of favored
contractors- the willing victims giving SOP in cash
advances.

1-4 Planning Difficulties


Rational planning is no longer the objective process,
based on training, and expertise concerning the actual
needs of the people, but is rather, a political decision. Not
even the Secretary of Public Works and Highways could say
no because politics is the power that controls
appropriations, budget and appointments of the presidents
cabinet members.

1-4 Planning Difficulties


As a consequence, public confidence tremendously eroded, not
only in the governments ability to abate these problems, but also in
the proficiency of the technical men to offer solutions. Planners are
now working in a world of rapid change, and uncertainty, in the
political atmosphere where decisions by magic, or oracles, carry
more weight than those based on professional training, expertise
and experiences. Indeed, our professionals more particularly the
technical men, seems to have lost confidence in thyself, or even the
solutions they offer.

1-5 Highway
Programming

1-5 Highway Programming


There are three inseparable sets of inputs involved in
highway programming, they are:
1. Economic - Deals with the questions of resources.
2. Financial The question of who pays and who

spends, how much and where?


3. Political and Administration This involves decision
making.

1-5 Highway Programming


In highway programming, projects are prioritized. Those
that were most economically viable were selected, if they fit
into the financial capability or political criteria are
abandoned, modified for substitute, or an alternative but
shall passed rigorous tests.

Highway Programming Approaches


Financial resources are either short or long ranged

implementation by the agencies functions like


construction, operations, and maintenance.
Recognition of the legislative and administrative desire
and constraint.
Tentative priorities based on economic analysis, critical
situations, present and future expected level of traffic,
and claims based on political subdivisions.

Highway Programming Approaches


Providing continuity of route system and coordination with

other transportation mode.


Selection of projects based on availability of labor and
materials, including climatic conditions.
Scheduling the project implementation in coordination with
other agencies, acquiring right of way and making final plan
and specifications.
Budgetary reserve to cover emergencies like floods and other
natural disasters.

Direct Effects of Highway Construction


and its Use
A. Quantifiable Market Value
1. Cost of highways as to:
a. Planning Cost
b. Right of way appropriations.
c. Construction cost
d. Maintenance costs
e. Operating costs

Direct Effects of Highway Construction


and its Use
2. Cost benefits to highway users
a. Vehicles operating costs (including congestion cost) net
income or decrease in costs of vehicle operation per year.
b. Travel savings time (commercial). Net increase or decrease
in travel time multiplied by the peso values of commercial.
c. Motorists safety (economic cost accident) Net change in
expected number of accidents times the average cost per
accident per year.

Direct Effects of Highway Construction


and its Use
B. Non-Quantifiable Non-Market Value
1. Cost benefit to highway user:
a. Motorists safety Accident cost of pain suffering and
deprivation.
b. Comfort and conversion Discomfort, inconvenience and
strain of driving.
c. Aesthetic from driving viewpoint Benefit of pleasing
views and scenery from road.

Direct Effects of Highway Construction


and its Use
C. Quantifiable Non-Market Value
1. Cost benefits to highway users Traveling savings
time. (non-commercial) Minutes save per vehicle trip.

1-6

The Planner

1-6 The Planner


Before any project comes to reality, it has to undergo
rigorous and careful studies with participation of several line
agencies involved. Where proposals may be opposed or
questioned by other agencies, or in the political mill, the
planner appoints coordinators or catalyst, to work out in
exchanging information as to the needs, goals, and
alternative solutions of those who are affected, and to
incorporate them into the planning and decision making.

1-6 The Planner


Where planners act as coordinators, catalysts or to work as
community advocates, should not be either partisan or
advocate to a particular solution. Their role is:
1. To provide technical and organizational support.
2. To receive input or information on the needs and goals
of affected persons group or agencies.
3. Incorporate the above for planning and making
decision.

1-6 The Planner


The planners role must be of a clarifier, expediters,
conciliators and impartial negotiators. The myth of
rationality must be avoided because they might believe that
as professionals, they are uniquely super qualified to judge
what is best for the society in their field of expertise and
competence. They must accept that their personal values
and goals are different from other participants.

The Functions of the Planners Role


1. To prepare preliminary design, scoop of study and the initial work
program. Know the basic needs plan and objectives of affected persons.
2. Exploration of alternatives. Data gathering by contacting the
representatives of other agencies involved.
3. Detailed analysis. Prepare detailed plan for appropriate
community interaction.
4. Secure the formal ratification from the other local officials and
have the results documented. If nothing goes wrong, this step is
considered final.

The Functions of the


Planners Role
Good ethics demand that planners should understand
that their role is to provide knowledge and unbiased
information. To be partisan and emotionally involved, will
only jeopardized their credibility. This might give them the
feeling of personal defeat and disillusionment with their
profession, if the solutions that they offered are thrown into
the trash can.

1-7

Community
Involvement

1-7 Community Involvement


In a democratic government, the public has the right to
hear and be heard. Much more to participate in public
hearing where planning and decision making will be
conducted before major decisions are made.

1-7 Community Involvement


It is a common practice to call public hearing after all
major decisions were made and approved. Indeed, public
hearing is no more than information forum for the public to
know what the administration wants for them, rather than,
what the people wants from them. Public Hearing should
involve the public from the start of planning to give them a
chance to participate in the discussions and involved them in:

1-7 Community Involvement


1. Solicit the cooperation and support of public officials,

non-government organizations, influential persons and


conservative group of the community.
2. Create special staff to carry out this function.
3. Community leadership opportunity to participate
continuously in the planning stage.
4. Organize and develop skilled persons to conduct group
meeting, workshops, hearing and other related activities.

1-8

Highway
Economy

1-8 Highway Economy


A country who will not avail of loans or grant from foreign
financing institutions will not feel the great impact of their
infrastructure projects, if domestic income through taxes
alone will be depended on. Financing institution such as the
World Bank insists that projects to which the make grants or
loans be justified primarily on the economic basis. According
to W Gillespe, professor of Civil Engineering at the Union
College:

1-8 Highway Economy


A minimum of expenses is of course, highly desirable; but the
road which is truly the cheapest is not the one which has cost the
least money, but the one which makes the most profitable returns
in proportion to the amount expended upon it.
- W Gillespe

1-8 Highway Economy


There are many designs and administrative decisions
that does not involve public policy, but these should be
made by selecting the alternative that is cheapest in the
long run. Meaning: The result from an economic study that
is reasonably interpreted must prevail.

The intent of expenditures for


highways and public transportations
are enumerated as follows:
1. To augment the countrys level of economy.
2. To provide easy access to working place.
3. To facilitate public services; police, fire protection etc.
4. To facilitate medical care, schooling and delivery of

related basic services.

The intent of expenditures for


highways and public transportations
are enumerated as follows:
5. To give landowner benefits to transportation and increase

property assessment.
6. Benefit to motor vehicle users through lower cost of operations
and maintenance.
7. Benefit in time saving
8. Less road accident
9. To give maximum comfort and ease of travel.

1-8 Highway Economy


Most of the countrys expenditures for highways and
public transport facilities are based on the principle of Pay
as you go. Meaning, road appropriations and expenditures
depend on tax collections.

1-8 Highway Economy


Legally, the appropriation and expenditures of taxes being the
peoples contribution to the government must be prorated
proportionally to the different provinces municipalities and cities in
terms of infrastructure projects and not just be concentrated in
specific place. Under that principle, progress of the country would
be very slow considering the meager amount each province will get,
and the infrastructure it will accomplish. Hence, borrowing from
foreign banks is the ultimate solutions of the government to deliver
impact infrastructure projects to boost the economy and move
quickly forward.

Arguments of those who Favors


Borrowings are:
1. The need is immediate to have instant

infrastructures.
2. No impact project will be seen because the pay as
you go fund is scattered throughout the entire road
system where the situation is most critical.
3. Borrowings encourage investors because of fast
progress.

Counter Arguments of those Against Financing


Infrastructures through Borrowing:
1. Borrowing may impair the credit rating of the

government agencies obstructing other more important


improvements.
2. If future income is committed to pay past improvements,
no more funds available to maintain the existing system.
3. With much amount available temptation is there to over
build and recklessly spend extravagantly.
4. Interest of loan is a big waste of public funds.

1-9
and

Computation
Survey

1-9 Computation and Survey


Early engineering approach to highway and
transportation problems were based on the results of their
computations with the aid of slide rule and replaced by
calculator machine. This method is time consuming and
was totally discarded in the advent of computers and its
appurtenances.

1-9 Computation and Survey


Today, most of the agencies have their own data
processing and reporting is done through computer
networks. Engineering approach to highway and
transportation problems are done through computer output
from the simple to complex matters.

Computers can do processing data


for many problems like:
1. Projections and statistical studies of traffic and transit

passengers.
2. Economic Analysis
3. Financial Programming
4. Geometric
5. Bridges

Computers can do processing


data for many problems like:
6. Pavement design and maintenance
7. Pavement management
8. Scheduling for design and construction.
9. Computation of earthworks and other quantities both

for planning and payment of contractors.

1-9 Computation and Survey


Computers are provided with stereo plotter for map
making and location identification. The computer base
interactive graphics could present problems into the screen,
focused on technical matters and management decisions
making data. Various computer programs are abundantly
available to solve the repetitive highway and transportation
problems.

1-9 Computation and Survey


The computer graphics display a motorist a view of the
highway so that the engineer could make appropriate
treatment of certain portion as transition from cut to fills,
route, location, traffic, and transportation planning and
accident analysis.

1-9 Computation and Survey


The interactive graphics is used without computer,
referred to as environmental simulation. A remote
controlled television camera passes through small scales
physical module of the area or route. The passage is
recorded in the tape and the playback will show impression
similar to that of the walker on the road or the vehicle
driver.

1-9 Computation and Survey


With the aid of the sophisticated computers and its
appurtenances, engineering practice today is not as difficult as the
time of slide rule era. Computers are less prone to computational
if error if correctly programmed. On the other hand, too much
reliance on this machine might be a trap for the uninformed to
assume that the program inputs are absolutely correct. Deeper
analysis and professional attention to computer program is the
key to accurate results that could be the basis for good decisions.

1-10

Remote
Sensing

1-10 Remote Sensing

Remote sensing is otherwise called Photogrammetry. It is


the science and art of obtaining measurements by means of
photography. Photogrammetry is based on aerial
photographs for engineers working data on:
1. Locations
2. Planning
3. Geometric Design

1-10 Remote Sensing


4. Right of way
5. Traffic studies
6. Drainage
7. Soil classifications and identifications
8. Earthwork measurements
9. Material location
10. Pavement condition survey

1-11
Photogrammetric
Mapping

1-11 Photogrammetric Mapping


A vertical aerial photograph taken by a camera pointed
almost straight downward is the most useful mapping for
highway purposes. The area to be covered is photographed
in parallel runs with the individual pictures lapped in the
direction of the flight (end lap) and between successive
runs (side lap). For stereoscopic uses, the following must be
considered:

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
1. End lap must be greater than one half the picture width

specified not less than 55% nor more than 65% in order that the
center of one picture is included in both adjacent photograph.
2. Side lap should average at 25% with less than 15%. More than
35% is unacceptable.
3. For making map purposes, the variable includes the focal
length of the aerial camera, the desired combination of map
scale and contour interval and the ratio of map scale to
photograph scale.

Instruments used in converting data


from aerial photographs into maps are:
1. The Kelsh and Balplex stereoscopic plotters.
2. The wild autograph
3. The Kern PG2
4. The Zeiss Stereoplanigraph

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
Features that cannot be identified on the photographs are
located by ground measurements. Any important points to be
included on the ground surveys are marked for easy
identification on the photograph. Accuracy of the ground
control triangulation network is when scaled with the aerial
photographs. The third order triangulation is acceptable in
rural areas, and the second order triangulation for urban
locations wherein the maximum errors in distance are 1 to 5000
and 1 to 10,000 respectively.

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
An accurate angular triangulation measurement is easily
obtained by the use of Modern Theodolites. The distance
measurement is carried out by an electronic distant measuring
device (EDM) that employ infrared light beams, microwave or
laser light.

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
The Photogrammetric technique coupled with digitizer,
produces digital terrain models. The horizontal and vertical
positions of the ground surface, and other photographic
features are directly transferred from the matched aerial
photograph to a computer data bank. The information is
recalled and the computer is programmed to develop
showing the following:

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
1. Profiles
2. Cross sections
3. Cut and fill earthwork quantities
4. The motorist view of the road

With the photographs and computer record data, a separate


map could be plotted easily like:
1. The highways
2. The drainage
3. Housing
4. Land use and zoning
5. Property assessment

1-11 Photogrammetric
Mapping
The ground field survey is done only as
supplemental in completing the details of those
that could not be produced in the photographs.

1-12
Orthophotographs

1-12 Orthophotographs
Orthophotographs is an aerial photograph corrected
for scale and tilt. When the center portion are skillfully
matched and copied, they appear to be a single
photograph that shows far more detail than maps. The
uncorrected or partially corrected photographs are
combined to form a mosaic, considered better for
engineering accuracy and right of way purposes.

1-13

Colored
Photographs

1-13 Colored Photographs


Aerial photograph presents a more detailed and precise
information on traffic and parking studies. It gives clear
information of the geological conditions, land use, source of
materials, surfaces and sub-surface drainage. An oblique
photograph is used for special studies particularly, where the
ground condition is almost flat or where cliffs are so steep
that a black and white photograph could not give sufficient
details.

1-14

Location of the
Proposed Highway

1-14 Location of the Proposed Highway


Early roads started from trails. Movements of people and
the use of motor vehicles prompted road agencies to
improve road alignment minimizing sharp curves. Road
width was standardized and grades were flattened.

1-14 Location of the Proposed Highway


New highway locations are blended with curvature
grades and other roadway elements to offer; comfortable
easy driving, free flowing traffic arteries, comply with the
rules on safety standards.

1-14 Location of the Proposed Highway


To improve the highways, there should be tentative plan as
to control, and minimum design speed, roadway cross
sections, and maximum slope with the following
considerations:
1. Reliable cost estimate
2. Character and hourly distribution of Traffic
3. Economic and community benefit factor
4. Availability of funds

Location Surveys in the rural


areas are divided into 4 stages.
1. Reconnaissance survey of the entire area between the

terminal points.
2. Reconnaissance survey of all feasible routes.
3. Preliminary survey of the best route.
4. Location survey, staking of the right of way, the
highway and the structure for construction.

Activities
Under stage I. Reconnaissance survey of the entire area
1. Stereoscopic examination of small scaled aerial

photographs of the area supplemented by available


maps.
2. Determination control of photography and land use.
3. Location of feasible routes based on photographs and
maps.

Activities
Under stage II. Reconnaissance survey of feasible route:
1. Stereoscopic examination of large-scale aerial photographs of each

route.
2. Determination of the detailed control pf photography and land use.
3. Preparation of route maps by Photogrammetric methods.
4. Location and comparison of feasible routes on photographs and
maps.
5. Selection of the best route.

Activities
Stage III. Preliminary Surveys of the best route
1. Preparation of large-scale topographic maps using

the route photograph and Photogrammetric methods or


preparation of large scale topographic maps by ground
survey guided by best route location made on
photographs in the second stage.
2. Design of the preliminary location.

Activities
Stage IV. Location Survey
Staking of the right of way and the highway and

structures for construction.

1-15

Location of
Bridges

1-15 Location of Bridges


Highways and Bridges have but one purpose To convey
traffic. The location and position of a bridge is subordinate
to the general alignment and grade. But sometimes,
favorable alignment has to be sacrificed only to provide a
right angle crossing to small creek.

1-15 Location of Bridges


Lately however, the general policy for minor roads is
determine the proper highway location, then provide the
structures. A skewed bridge is comparatively more expensive
than the right angle bridge. The horizontal and vertical
curvature shape of large bridge presents may result to a
better roadway. Foundation design of piers and abutments
has large effect on costs, but cost is not always the
determining factor in design.

1-15 Location of Bridges


The cost of the bridge and its full approached combined
before the crossing site should be determined. Bridge
survey report should be accompanied with accurate data on
the waterway and the historical behavior of the water. The
bridge survey data shall include the foundation conditions,
stream characteristics, and the adjacent structure on the
stream more particularly, their waterway opening.

1-15 Location of Bridges


When the location of the bridge is approximately
determine, the following requirements must be considered:
1. A complete data report and special survey of the site.
2. Prepare sketches and full scale map and profiles.
3. The survey report must contain accurate data of the

waterway for all behavior of water.

1-15 Location of Bridges


When the location of the bridge is approximately
determine, the following requirements must be
considered:
4.

There must be a complete report on the foundation


condition and the stream characteristics.
5. A complete data of the adjacent structures particularly
the waterway opening.
6. If possible, skewed bridge should be avoided.

1-15 Location of Bridges

1-16
and

Highway Plans
Specifications

1-16 Highway Plans and Specifications


Plans and specifications are set of documents of
instructions and conditions under which highways and
bridges are built. The plan contains engineering drawings
of the project, whereas, the specifications is a written
instructions and conditions considered as integral part of
the contract between the contractor and highway agency
classified as legal documents.

The complete detailed scheme for the road which are incorporated
in the geometric designs are:
1. Traffic
2. Drainage
3. Erosion Control
4. Roadside Development
5. Structure
6. Soils
7. Pavement

Presentation of a Road Plan


1. The upper sheet is allocated for the plan, top view

showing the horizontal alignment, right of way takings,


drainage arrangement and other features.
2. The lower half is allotted to the profile where the original
elevation of the ground surface is plotted. The roadway
centerline and the vertical alignment or grade line for the
road is indicated.
3. The vertical scale of the profile is usually exaggeratedly
enlarged from five to ten times for precise detail.

Presentation of a Road Plan


4. The profile and other details of the drainage, channels or

connecting roads including ramps are also presented.


5. The estimated earthwork quantities for every 50 meters
station or other intervals are indicated along the bottom of
each sheet along with the estimated overhead. This will
serve the engineer and the contractor.

Presentation of a Road Plan


6. The roadway cross sections for every situation in the

whole project stretch is indicated on another sheet of the


plan.
7. Another sheet of drawings showing all structures
and roadway appurtenances is included.
8. The standard size of the drawing sheet is 55 cm x 90
cm.

Partial List of subjects covered by


the standard drawing:
Pipe culverts
Concrete box culverts
Guard rail and parapet
Curbs
Gutters
Curb structures

Partial List of subjects covered


by the standard drawing:
Sidewalks
Drainage inlet and outlet structures of numerous types
Manholes
Rip-rap and other devices used for bank protection
Fences and right of way
Other survey markers

The Specifications
Specifications writing is generally different and a delicate
work requiring knowledge of the law of contracts as well as
highway practices and experiences. Specifications that are
carelessly written and loosely worded may result in the use of
substandard materials and poor workmanship. Mostly, it
involves extra cost to the owner or the contractor and
sometimes landed in court litigations. On the other hand,
specifications that are too restrictive are very costly.

Highways Specifications is
Divided into Two:
1. Standard Specifications - applies to project
implemented by administration which treat the subject that
repeatedly occurs in the agency work.

Highways Specifications is
Divided into Two:
2. Special Provisions covers peculiar item of the project
in question that include additional modification to standard
specifications. This includes copies of all documents
required in securing competitive bids and contracts.
Specifications are also subdivided into two:

Special Provisions
a.) The general clause that deals with the bidding

procedures and award execution and control of work


and other legal matters.

b.) Specifying details regarding the materials, manner

of work execution and how pay quantities are to be


measured.