French Rev and Napoleon | Napoleon | French Revolution

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution and Napoleon
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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Causes of the Revolution
Long-standing resentments against the monarchy • Inequalities in society – Existing social and political structure – Called the Old Order, or ancient régime • King at the top and estates under him – King Louis XVI, shy and indecisive – Unpopular, self-indulgent queen, Marie-Antoinette – Rest of French society divided into three classes, called estates

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The Three Estates
Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxes
First Estate • Roman Catholic clergy • One percent of the population • Exempt from taxes • Owned 10 percent of the land – Collected rents and fees – Bishops and other clergy grew wealthy Second Estate • Nobility • Less than 2 percent of the population • Paid few taxes • Controlled much wealth • Held key positions – Government – Military • Lived on country estates Third Estate • Largest group—97% of the population • Bourgeoisie—citydwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals • Sans culottes— artisans and workers • Peasants—poor with little hope, paid rents and fees

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Further Causes
Enlightenment Ideas
• Inspiring new ideas from Enlightenment philosophers • Great Britain’s government limiting the king’s power • American colonists rebelled successfully against British king • New ideas changed government and society in other countries

A Financial Crisis
• Severe economic problems affected much of the country • France in debt, spending lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcy • Hailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited flour production • People hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no help

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution and Napoleon By 1789, no group happy
• Clergy and nobility lost power to monarchy • Bourgeoisie resented regulations • Poor worse off

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First Events of the Revolution
Estates General meets
• Desire for reforms • Voting process a problem • Third Estate proclaimed themselves National Assembly • Tennis Court Oath

Storming of the Bastille
• King brought in troops • People of Paris armed themselves • Searching for weapons, a mob stormed the Bastille

Great Fear spread
• King to punish the Third Estate with foreign soldiers • Rumors of massacres • Peasants destroyed records and burned nobles’ houses

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Creating a New Nation
Legislating New Rights
• Feudal dues eliminated • Declaration laid out “liberty, equality, fraternity” • Inspired by the English Bill of Rights, American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Enlightenment philosophers • Men are born equal and remain equal under the law • The rights did not extend to women

Restrictions on Power
• Louis tried to protect his throne • Angered the common people • Prices still high; mob broke into the palace demanding bread • Royal family seized; National Assembly took bolder steps • Passed laws against the church, clergy, and public employees • Some outraged by actions

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Formation of a New Government
In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed.

Foreign Powers
• Austria and Prussia warned against harming monarchs • Austrian army defeats French • Financial strain of war, food shortages, and high prices • King blamed; action demanded

End of Monarchy
• August 10, 1792 royal family imprisoned by mob • Radical faction took charge with National Convention • Monarchy abolished; France declared a republic

French revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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A Radical Government
In 1792, the radical representatives were in charge of the National Convention. The constitutional monarchy came to a violent end, and France became a republic.

Factions
• Radical Mountain • Moderate Girondins • The Plain (swing voters) • No group had program or plan of action • Personal rivalries

Leaders
• Marat
– Sansculottes, advocate of violence

Executions
• King put to death by guillotine • Europeans reacted with horror
– Revolution savagery condemned

• Danton
– Compromiser

• Robespierre
– Dedicated radical

The French Revolution and Napoleon Tightening Control

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• Committee of Public Safety set up to manage military defense • Drafted all able-bodied men between 18 and 45 for service • Established the Revolutionary Tribunal to protect the Revolution

Transforming Society
• Leaders wanted to erase connections to old ways of life • Clergy members lost positions; churches closed in Paris • Robespierre created the cult of the Supreme Being • Metric system was introduced

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The Reign of Terror
Course of Revolution
• Revolutionary leaders feared counterrevolution and took drastic actions with accusations, trials, and executions. This period was known as the Reign of Terror.

An Outbreak of Civil War
• Peasants, essentially conservative, only wanted an end to feudal dues. • Remaining devoutly Catholic, the Vendée region opposed the Revolution in a civil war. The government put down the counterrevolution to regain control.

Accusations and Trials
• Robespierre used the Revolutionary Tribunal to rid the country of dissent. • It started with the Girondists, but soon anyone who had ever criticized the Revolution, or who had connections to the Old Order, was in danger.

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution and Napoleon Death by Guillotine
• Most common sentence - death by guillotine • Condemned paraded through Paris in open carts

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No Escape from the Terror

• Mobs watched at scaffold; executions took less than one minute

The Terror’s Victims
• No one was spared • Peasants and laborers affected • 40,000 executed in 10 months • “Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name!”

After the Terror
• France started over with new constitution in 1795 • Voting limited to property owners • High prices, bankruptcy, and citizens’ unrest continued • Power vacuum developed

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Summarize Why was the period of mass executions called the Reign of Terror?
Answer(s): It was a period of accusations, trials, and executions that led to a wave of fear.

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Napoleon’s Rise to Power
Napoleon Bonaparte, ruthlessly ambitious, rose from army captain to ruler of France in a very short time. He took advantage of the turmoil of the French Revolution.

Opportunities for Glory
• Napoleon, brilliant military leader • In charge of French interior at 26 • Became national hero

Napoleon Seizes Power
• Directory weak and ineffective • Fear of royalists and of European opposition • November 1799 coup d’état • France to be led by Consulate • Napoleon voted first consul, in effect a dictator

Napoleon promised order and stability, pledging to uphold key reforms. The French gave up some freedoms for peace and prosperity.

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Emperor Napoleon
Once France under control, Napoleon turned to Europe • Napoleon crowns himself
– Emperor Napoleon I

• Desire for empire – Wanted to rule Europe and the Americas
– French expedition to Saint Domingue (Haiti today) failed – Napoleon sold Louisiana Territory and turned his focus to Europe

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Quest to Conquer Europe
Napoleonic Wars Begin • Extension of wars fought during the French Revolution, would last a decade • France dominant power in Europe • French empire grew rapidly, but fell apart more quickly • Nelson and British navy won Battle of Trafalgar off coast of Spain • Napoleon defeated Russian and Austrian troops at Austerlitz

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Napoleon Dominates Europe
Mastered Most of Europe
• Through treaties, alliances, and victories in battle • Controlled much of Europe by 1812

Free of Control
• Great Britain remained an enemy • Sweden, Portugal, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire escaped his grip

Rewarded Relatives
• Relatives put in power; brothers on thrones of Holland, Naples, and Sicily • Sisters and stepson held powerful positions

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Napoleon’s Policies
Church-State Relations
• Antireligious nature of French Revolution over • Became friendly with Catholic church

Economic Reforms
• Established the Bank of France to regulate economy • More efficient tax-collection system

Legal and Educational
• Napoleonic Code developed • Order and authority over individual rights • Schools for government and military positions

Legacy—Age of Napoleon
• Democratic ideas • Equality before law, representative system • Spread of nationalism

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Disaster and Defeat
Portugal
• Napoleon surprised by inability to control Portugal • Peninsular campaign was a failure

Russia
• Czar Nicholas I didn’t like French troops on western border

Costly Mistake
• Napoleon turned east in 1812 • Hoped to teach Russia a lesson

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution and Napoleon

Section 1 French Army

The Russian Campaign
June 1812
• Napoleon and army of 600,000 troops • Marched across Russian border • New recruits with no loyalty • Supplies lost or spoiled • Disease, desertion, and hunger

No One to Fight
• Russian troops pulled east • French victory at Borodino, but Russian army still strong • Pushed to Moscow but found city in flames

Retreat Homeward
• Ruined city, no winter supplies • Starvation and freezing temperatures decimated army • Only 94,000 men survived

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Defeat and Exile to Elba
• Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied against France • Napoleon raised another army, but troops inexperienced • In October 1813 Napoleon defeated at Battle of the Nations near Leipzig • In March 1814, victorious allies entered Paris. • Terms of surrender—Napoleon gave up throne and went into exile on tiny island of Elba

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Identify Cause and Effect What factors contributed to Napoleon’s failure in Russia?
Answer(s): soldiers lacked loyalty to Napoleon, extreme heat, supplies lost or spoiled, disease, desertion, hunger, Russian troops withdrew, harsh Russian winter

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The Last Campaigns
The Hundred Days • French monarchy restored with King Louis XVIII • King unpopular; Napoleon returns after year in exile • Louis panicked and fled; Napoleon declared outlaw by allies • Paris cheered Napoleon’s return • Brief period of renewed glory-the Hundred Days

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The Last Campaigns
Battle of Waterloo
• Duke of Wellington led final confrontation • Battle of Waterloo • British and Prussian armies • Crushing defeat for Napoleon • End of the Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon’s Final Days
• Tried to escape capture, sent to exile in Saint Helena • Volcanic island in South Atlantic • Remained imprisoned for six years • Died at 51; cause of death never determined

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Draw Conclusions How was Napoleon able to escape exile in Elba and return to command the French army?
Answer(s): hired a ship to return him to France and won the support of people and the army

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