Adolescence

Adolescent Behavior and Development

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Adolescence

Presented By Lubna Ishtiaque Aqsa Mukhtar Rabia Saleem Marwa Anwar
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Adolescence

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Adolescence

Adolescence

Adolescence is the period extending from the onset of puberty to early adulthood between ages 12 and 20 Puberty is the time when the reproductive system matures

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Adolescence

Early Adolescence
VISIT 11 to 14 YEARS INTRODUCE
•Family Time Together •Peer Relationships •Support System •Staying Safe •Teen Mental Health •Conflict Resolution Skills •Healthy Dating •Gaining Independence

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Physical Maturation
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Adolescence

Secondary sex characteristics are the physical characteristics other than genital, that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice Adaptation at puberty requires an integration of biological, psychological, and social changes The degree to which one’s body matches the desired or socially valued body build of the culture influences social acceptance by peers and adults

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Adolescence

Adolescence Physical Changes

•Male

Changes

•Gains weight •Grows body hair •Penis and testicles

develop •Voice ‘breaks’ •Shoulders broaden •Skin and hair change •Becomes taller

•Female Changes
•Gains weight
•Grows body hair •Periods start •Breasts develop •Shape changes •Skin and hair change •Becomes taller

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Adolescence

Adolescence
Intellectual – Adolescence can usually work things out logically. Decision making skills take time to develop in adulthood Emotional – hormones may be out of balance and this can lead to mood swings or aggressive behaviour. Lack of confidence and low self-esteem can be a problem at this age Social- become increasingly independent of their families and Social more dependent on their peer group. They also begin to explore their sexuality which includes testing out relationships and sexual behaviour with others

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Adolescence

Decision making, hormones, logically, independent, peer group, mood swings, Lack of confidence, low self esteem, sexuality, relationships

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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
SENSORY MOTOR 0 - 2 YEARS

Adolescence

object permanence egocentrism symbol development concepts can be manipulated conservation

PREOPERATIONAL 2 - 6 YEARS

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL 7 - 12 YEARS

FORMAL OPERATIONS 12 YEARS

test abstract hypothesis manipulate symbolic concepts
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Adolescence

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Views

“With the advent of formal intelligence, thinking takes

wings, and it is not surprising that at first this unexpected power is both used and abused”

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Adolescence

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Views

“It is the metaphysical age par excellence; the self is

strong enough to reconstruct the universe and big enough to incorporate it”

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Adolescence

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Views

“The life plan of young girls is more closely linked to personal relationships, and their hypothetico-deductive systems take on the form more of a hierarchy of affective values than of a theoretical system…their life plan is more concerned with people.”

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Adolescence

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Views

“Reason, which expresses the highest forms of equilibrium, reunites intelligence and affectivity”

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Adolescence

Cognitive Development

Personality Development “The upholding of a steady equilibrium during the adolescent process is in itself abnormal”

FORMAL OPERATIONS 12 YEARS

test abstract hypothesis manipulate symbolic concepts

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Adolescence

Emotional Development

Descriptions of adolescence often refer to new levels of emotional variability, moodiness, and emotional outbursts Some researchers have questioned whether adolescence really brings the peaks and valleys of emotional intensity that are stereotypically linked to this time of life Given the likelihood of a more differentiated range of emotions during adolescence, a major task during this time is to gain a tolerance of one’s emotionality

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Adolescence

Emotional Development: Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are an example of internalizing problems, turning one’s frustration, anger, or fear inward on the self Anorexia is characterized by a fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight, and perceptions of one’s body as overweight in general or in specific area Bulimia involves spurts of binging and overeating followed by the use of different strategies to prevent the absorption of food, such as induced vomiting, the use of laxatives, or strenuous exercise

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Adolescence

Emotional Development: Eating Disorders (cont.)

Origins of eating disorders are not fully understood: A preoccupation with body appearance may be provoked by the relatively rapid physical changes associated with puberty Because of the seriousness and widespread nature of eating disorders, public health experts are working to create a more positive acceptance of people of various body types and shapes, with less focus on thinness

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Adolescence

Emotional Development: Depression (cont.)

Major Depressive disorder is characterized by a person who has experience 5 or more symptoms for at least two weeks: depressed mood or irritable mood most of the day; decreased interest in pleasurable activities; changes in weight or perhaps failure to make necessary weight gains in adolescence; sleep problems; psychomotor agitation or retardation; fatigue or loss of energy, feeling of worthlessness or abnormal amounts of guilt; reduced concentration and decision-making ability; and repeated suicidal ideation, attempts , or plans of suicide

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Adolescence

Emotional Development: Factors Associated with Adolescent Depression & Gender Differences in Depression (cont.)

Adolescents are relatively inexperienced in coping with these kind of stressors

Most studies find no differences in depression between prepubescent boys and girls; however, during the period from about age 11 to 15, gender differences are systematically noted and continue to be evident into adulthood, with depression more common in females than in males

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Adolescence

Membership in the Peer Group: Cliques and Crowds & Peer Group Boundaries and Norms

Before the adolescent period, it is important to have friends, but not as important to be a member of a definable group Cliques are small friendship groups of 5 to 10 friends, and these groups provide the framework for frequent interactions both within school and in the neighborhood A crowd refers to a large group that is usually recognized by a few predominant characteristics such as their orientation toward academics, involvement in athletics, use of drugs, or involvement in deviant behavior
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Adolescence

Membership in the Peer Group: Cliques and Crowds & Peer Group Boundaries and Norms (cont.)

Popularity and acceptance into a peer group at the high school may be based on one or more of the following characteristics: good looks, athletic ability, social class, academic performance, future goals, affiliation with a religious, racial, or ethnic group, special talents, involvement with drugs or deviant behavior, general alienation from school Membership in cliques is relatively stable, but always vulnerable to change

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Adolescence

Membership in the Peer Group: Cliques and Crowds & Peer Group Boundaries and Norms (cont.)

Important skills that are learned by becoming a member of a peer group are the assessment of group structure and the selection of the particular group or groups with which one would like to affiliate Membership in an adolescent peer group is a forerunner of membership in an adult social group

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships

The Transition into Sexualized Relationships

Most young people are involved in a variety of romantic relationships during adolescence, including dating, feeling of tenderness and love, and deepening commitments Dating Relationships provide the initial context for most sexual activity.

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships

First Intercourse or the transition into sexual activity may take place in very different contexts for adolescents Usually the earlier the transition into sexual activity and intercourse the more likely the act is to be part of a profile of highrisk behaviors, including alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent activity

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Sexual Orientation

One might assume that sexual orientation – heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual – begins to take shape in early adolescence; the research on this point suggests an earlier and more differentiated path For sexual – minority youth, two aspects of a sexual orientation have been identified:
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Self-labeling – applying a label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual to one-self Disclosure – sharing this information with others

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality
The sexual system is one of the most problematic components of psychosocial development for young people in the United States  Most parents do not feel comfortable discussing sexuality with their children.  Sexually Transmitted Disease

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About 25% of sexually active teens contract a sexually transmitted disease each year. Teens are especially at risk for Chlamydia, genital herpes, and gonorrhea

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality (cont.)

Unwanted Sexual Attention

Often teen do not find the emotional closeness and understanding they may seek in a sexually intimate relationship Many instances of unwanted sexual contact occur on the first date or in a dating relationship The lack of supervision and monitoring by adults as well as the lack of opportunity to talk about sexuality with them can place adolescents at risk for early sexual experiences that are abusive or associated with negative feelings

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Problems and Conflicts Associated with Sexuality (cont.)

Contraception

In spite of the fact that many parents and teachers do not provide information about the use of contraceptives as part of their education about sex and sexual behavior, the use of contraceptives by U.S. teens has increased The use of contraceptives is associated with religious beliefs, family attitudes and behaviors, and peer norms

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Parenthood in Early Adolescence

Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy
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Poverty Increased Risk of Child Abuse Increase risk of birth complications associated with lack of prenatal care Although the focus on adolescent pregnancy has been on girls, there is growing concern about adolescent fathers. While most fathers of babies born to teen mothers are within 2 years of the mother’s age, about 20% are 5 or more years older than the mother

Adolescent Fathers

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Adolescence

Sexual Relationships: Parenthood in Early Adolescence (cont.)

Most studies of adolescent pregnancy find that, contrary to the stereotype, many fathers remain in contact with the mother and child in the first months after the child is born However, by the time the children are in school, contact drops off Fathering a child is bound to stimulate conflicting feelings of pride, guilt, and anxiety in the adolescent boy Little systematic research has been done on the attitudes, knowledge, or behaviors of adolescent fathers or the impact of fatherhood on a teenage boy’s subsequent development

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Adolescence

IDENTITY

WHO am I ?????

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Adolescence

Developm ent of Self-Co ncep t in Ado lescen ce

Adolescents incorporate psychological characteristics and social relationships into selfdescriptions Adolescents add more categories to their self-description; contradictions in self-description peak at about age 14 and then decline in later adolescence

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Adolescence

Identity
Some Contemporary Thoughts About Identity  Identity formation begins with appearance of attachment - development of sense of self, & emergence of independence in infancy  Healthy identities are flexible, adaptive & open to changes in society, in relationships & in careers  It is long, synthesizing process with tremendous amount of conflict & resolution


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Adolescence

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Identity Statuses & Development

Adolescence

James Marcia outlined four identity statuses, or modes of resolution following a crisis which is defined as period of identity development during which adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternatives; also involved is commitment in which adolescents show personal investment in what they are going to do

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Adolescence

Identity Statuses & Development
Identity diffusion: adolescents have not yet experienced a crisis or have made any commitments Identity foreclosure: adolescents who have made commitment but have not experienced crisis Identity moratorium: commitments are either absent or vaguely defined Identity achievement: adolescents who have undergone crisis & have made commitment

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Adolescence

Relationships with P arents

         

Teens spend more time with mothers, have more conflicts with them, and report them as being more supportive and knowing them better Adverse relationships with fathers are often associated with depression in adolescents Good relations with fathers contribute to adolescents’ psychological well-being Even though teens spend less time with parents, they continue to maintain love, loyalty, and respect for their parents Conflict greatest during puberty and declines in later adolescence Conflict occurs between what parent thinks they should control such as curfews and chores versus what teenager thinks they should control Mothers encourage teen to do homework and clean room Less conflict as teens get older; more compromise Little evidence to support generation gap between parents and teens; most teens are similar to parents with their value system Teens are not in constant state of rebellion against their parents


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Adolescence

The Psychosocial Crisis: Group Identity Versus Alienation

Group Identity – the positive pole of the psychosocial crises of early adolescence in which the person finds membership in and value convergence with a peer group. Cognitive Processes that Support the Formation of Group Identity
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Group Representations Group Operations Reflective Thinking about Groups Categorizing People and Recognizing Distinguishing Features of Group Members

Four Dimensions of Group Identity

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Adolescence

The Psychosocial Crisis: Group Identity Versus Alienation (cont.)
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Experiencing a Sense of History as a Member of a Group Emotional Investment in the Group Social Evaluation of One’s Group and its Relation to Other Groups

Alienation – withdrawal or separation of people or their affections from an object or position of former attachment
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The Contribution of Alienation to Group Identity and Individual Identity is important A period of feeling alone and lonely may help teens appreciate how good social acceptance feels and how important it is for their well being.

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Adolescence

E H A ES O M N IG T G F A Erik H E . rikson In C hildhood and Society
G N R T IT E E A IV Y V S ST G A IO A N T N

IN IM C T A Y V S IS L T N O A IO

V A II. dulthood C R A E

ID N IT E T Y V S R L C NU N O E O F SIO

V Y I. oung A dulthood L V O E

IN U R D ST Y V S IN E IO IT FR R Y

V P erty andA . ub dolescence F E IT ID L Y

IV L . atency C ME E C O PTN E
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The Psychosocial Crisis:

Adolescence

The assessment of the importance of certain content areas in relation to others influences the use of resources, the direction of certain decisions, and the kinds of experiences that may be perceived as most personally rewarding or threatening Both the content and evaluation components of identity may change over the life course

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The Central Process: Peer Pressure
Peer pressure refers to the demand for conformity to group norms and a demonstration of commitment and loyalty to group members  Peer pressure is often used with a negative connotation, suggesting that young people behave in ways that go against their beliefs or values because of a fear of peer rejection  However peer pressure can have an alternative meaning, one that highlights the emerging role of the peer group in the radius of significant others

Adolescence

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Adolescence

The Central Process: Peer Pressure (cont.)

Affiliating with a Peer Group – provides the context within which the crises of group identity versus alienation is resolved Peer Pressure in Specific Areas – time spent with peers, school, and family; academic achievement; drug use; engaging in misconduct; sexual activity; religious participation; community service; or preference in dress, music, or entertainment Conflicts Between Belonging and Personal Autonomy – peer groups do not command total conformity; most depend on the unique characteristics of their members to lend definition and vigor to the roles that emerge within them

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Adolescence

The Central Process: Peer Pressure (cont.)

Ethnic Group Identity – knowing that one is a member of a certain ethnic group; recognizing that aspects of one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by ethnic membership; and taking the ethnicgroup values, outlook, and the goals into account when making life choices

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Adolescence

Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use

Factors Associated with Alcohol Use

Physical Effects of Alcohol – death may result from chugging, when combined with other drugs, and when driving under the influence Assessment of Risk – adolescents do not view alcohol drinking as risky and may use it as sensation seeking behavior Reference Groups – the two reference groups that influence the acceptability of drinking and the manner in which alcohol is consumed are the family and the peer group

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Adolescence

Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use (cont.)

Early Entry into Alcohol and Drug Use –

Children who perceived that many of their friends had been drinking and who experienced peer pressure to drink were more likely to drink Children who were in classrooms where a larger number of children reported drinking were also at greatest risk of drinking. Perceptions of the amount of drinking that occurred in the family were also an important predictor of early alcohol use Binge Drinking

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Adolescence

Autonomy from Parents: Autonomy

Achieving a psychological sense of autonomy from one’s parents must be understood as a multidimensional task that is accomplished gradually over the course of later adolescence and early adulthood Autonomy is an ability regulate one’s own behavior with undue control from or dependence on one’s parents Autonomy requires independence of thoughts, emotions, and actions

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Adolescence

Early Adolescence Counseling for Parents Address parents’

What do you think of your teenager’s friends?

How are you monitoring your teenager?

concerns about safety while still helping them encourage their teen’s independence rules of behavior? How do you negotiate

What kind of activities does your child enjoy? What most concerns you about your teenager’s safety?

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Adolescence

Early Adolescence Counseling for Youth
With independence comes the responsibility for staying safe.

Whom do you turn to for advice and encouragement?

Whom do you go to for help if you’re having trouble in your re What do you do to stay safe?

What after-school activities are you involved with? What do you and your friends like to do?

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Adolescence

Autonomy from Parents: Autonomy (cont.)

Beyond these physical requirements, autonomy involves a psychological sense of confidence about one’s unique point of view and an ability to express opinions and beliefs that may differ from those of one’s parents. Differentiation, the family-system concept, has been associated with psychosocial maturity and a healthy emergence of individuality in adolescence

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Adolescence

Autonomy from Parents: Leaving Home, the College Experience, and Self Sufficiency

Living away form one’s parent’s household may be a symbol of independence; however, it is not as readily achievable in the age range of 18 to 24 as it was in the past Parents and adolescent children have different views about the age at which children are expected to leave home Economic factors and social norms play a significant role in the timing of leaving home Going away to college is a transition between parent’s home and living on your own

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Adolescence

Autonomy from Parents:

College freshmen express a variety of attitudes that suggest different views about their desire to be independent from their family Revision of Attachment with Parents is revisited when entering college For students who live on campus, preoccupation with thoughts and concerns about their parents tends to diminish over the course of the first semester, while new relationships form and a new confidence in their independent decision making builds Making independent decisions, taking responsibility for one’s actions, and achieving some degree of financial independence is part of establishing a sense of selfsufficiency

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Adolescence

Gender Identity: The Role of Culture

Acquisition of a set of beliefs, attitudes, and values about oneself as a man or a woman in many areas of social life, including intimate relationship, family, work, community, and religion All cultures construct gender-differentiated roles, and people expect one another to behave in certain ways because they are male or female Others argue that men and women should be considered equal, but that they should be treated in ways that take into account differences in their needs and capacities

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Adolescence

Gender Identity:
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Notions of physical attractiveness become more salient during this time Maturation of the hormonal system, which influences emotional arousal as well as sexual urges, contributes to the development of one’s gender identity If later adolescents become aware that their gender prevents them from having access to resources, influence, and decision-making authority, they are likely to experience a decline in their genderrole preference

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Ethnic Identity

Ethnic identity is a feeling of membership in an ethnic or cultural group Ethnic identity may serve to alienate some from larger society Parents and teachers can influence selfesteem in adolescents

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Adolescence

Internalized Morality

New Cognitive Capacities & Experiences that Promote Moral Reasoning
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Later adolescents explore the distinction between social conventions and moral issues Later adolescents bring new cognitive capacities to the arena of moral decision making Later adolescents are able to consider the multiple perspectives that are possible in a moral situation They are increasingly aware of the rights and needs of others, and they are able to step outside the situation in order to examine how an action may satisfy their own needs but harm others

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Internalized Morality:

Through participation in thought-provoking discussions or challenging life experiences, moral reasoning can advance to the next higher level Exposure to a diversity of information, relationships, and worldviews stimulates moral reasoning

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Adolescents Must Adolescence Confront Two Major Tasks

1- Achieving autonomy from their parents 2- Forming an identity – creating an integral self that harmoniously combines different aspects of personality.

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Adolescence

Self-Concept

1- Adolescents distinguish others’ views of themselves from their own perceptions.

“Others look at me as laid-back and relaxed, but really, I’m often nervous and emotional.”

2- During the earlier years of adolescence, teenagers may want to view themselves in a certain way and may feel concerned when behavior is inconsistent with their view.

“I’m a sociable person and love to be with people.”

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Adolescence

Psychosocial Crisis

Individual Identity Versus Identity Confusion
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The Content Component of Identity The private self is a sense of self, which refers to one’s uniqueness and unity, a subjective experience of being self-reflective The public self includes the many roles one plays and the expectations of others The Evaluation Component of Identity The significance one places on various aspects of the identity content

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Adolescence

The Psychosocial Crisis: Identity Formation for Males and Females

Questions have been raised about the process of identity formation and its outcome for young men and women in our society Some investigators have argued that the concept of identity as It has been formulated is a reflection of a male-oriented culture that focuses heavily on occupation and ideology rather than on interpersonal commitments

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Adolescence

Psychosocial Crisis

Men and women appear to handle the process of role experimentation and identity achievement somewhat differently Other researchers point out that Erikson’s construct of personal identity is embedded in relational context Other evidence of gender differences has been found in the content of the identity

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Adolescence

Suicide: When the Ad ol escen t Has No thin g

— E xcept Everyth ing — to Lo se
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Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents Since 1960 suicide rate has tripled for young people, age 15 to 24 1 to 2 American adolescents in 10,000 commit suicide each year; 1 in 10 has attempted suicide at least once

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Adolescence

Risk Factors in S ui cid e

Suicidal adolescents experience four areas of psychological problems: (1) confusion about the self, (2) impulsiveness, (3) emotional instability, and (4) interpersonal problems (Miller et al., 2007; Rathus & Miller, 2002) Some high achieving teens are rigid perfectionists who feel depressed when they compare themselves to others negatively Adolescent suicide attempts more common after stressful life event

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Adolescence

Risk Factors in S ui cid e Co ntinu ed

Stressful life events can include: breaking up with a boyfriend/girlfriend, death of a parent or friend, a family member leaving home Other factors include concerns over sexuality, school grades, problems at home, substance abuse, being “found out” for something like failing grades or getting arrested Suicide runs in families
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Adolescence

Risk Factors in S ui cid e Co ntinu ed

Suicidal warning signs include: belief that it is acceptable to kill one’s self, drug abuse and other delinquency, victimization by bullying, extensive body piercing, stress, hostility, depression and other psychological disorders, heavy smoking, low self-esteem and increasing age from 11 to 21

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Adolescence

Ethnicity, S ex, and S uicid e

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Native American and Latino/a teenagers have highest suicide rates due in part to stresses they are exposed to and lack of access to health care European American teens are next highest rate African American teens least likely to attempt or think about suicide 3 times as many female as males attempt it; 4 times as many males complete a suicide Males use rapid and lethal methods, females use drugs

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Self-E steem in Ado lescen ce

Adolescence

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Declines as child progresses from middle childhood to about the age of 12 or 13 Boys fantasize about having physiques of warriors in video games; girls want to be thin Notion of ideal self may move to reflecting reality as adolescents develop better skills, they may grow less selfcritical Low self-esteem manifests itself in normal ways as well as harmful ways as in depressed and suicidal teens Emotional support from parents and peers important; the more highly regarded the teen feels the more likely to regard themselves higher

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Ethnic Identity Development

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Adolescence

What is identity development?

Identity development is a series of stages everyone must go through to determine who they are as an individual.

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What is ethnic identity development?

A sense of group or collective identity based on one’s perception that he or she shares a common racial heritage with a particular racial group Racial identity development theory concerns the psychological implications of racial-group membership, that is belief systems that evolve in reaction to perceived differential racial-group membership.

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Adolescence

Conformity

In this stage, people of color identify strongly with White Dominant Society, permitting the White society to define their worth and value. Individuals in this stage often accept negative stereotypes about themselves and their group. In addition, they know very little and are not interested in learning about their own ethnic heritage or history. Such persons usually associate with primarily White people and have very little to do with members of their own ethnic group.

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Dissonance

In this stage, persons have experiences, or gain insights, that cause them to question their conforming attitudes, and cause confusion and conflict. They question values of the dominant culture they have previously held in high esteem.

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Dissonance

They become more aware of racism, oppression, and stereotyping. Ethnic minority individuals may attempt to develop friendly relations with members of their own ethnic group with whom they have previously not been able to identify.

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Resistance and Immersion

Adolescence

This is a stage of extremes, during which individuals become immersed in their own cultural history, values, and lifestyle. Such persons are highly motivated to combat oppression, racism, and prejudice, and may evidence activist behavior and an increased distrust of the dominant culture.

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Resistance and Immersion

Adolescence

Overall, individuals in this stage attempt to completely separate themselves from the dominant group, believing that majority people are responsible for their negative life circumstances.

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Introspection

In this stage, individuals take a hard look at their total rejection of the dominant culture and total acceptance of their own group. Individuals often experience conflict and confusion regarding loyalty to their cultural groups and their personal preferences and autonomy.

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Introspection

Internal conflict is most profound in this stage, as individuals struggle to find a balance between what they want for themselves, based on personal desires, needs, and aspirations versus what their own ethnic group expects of them.

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Personal Identity

Stage 1: Identity is based on their primary reference group

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Group Choice

Stage 2: Identity selection is often that of being forced into one group ethnic by societal standards/ perceptions

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Enmeshment/Denial

Stage 3: This stage is characterized by confusion and guilt at having to choose one ethnic identity and a sense of dissatisfaction that this does not fully represent oneself.

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Appreciation

Stage 4: Reference group orientation broadens – beginning to expand their understanding of multiple heritages but may still maintain one group identification.

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Integration

Stage 5: – individual experience wholeness and integration. Value of all their racial and ethnic identities. Now able to recognize and appreciate the complexities and benefits of their culture (s) and ethnicities.

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Identity Confusion

In this stage, a sense of incongruence (conflict between their perception of themselves as heterosexual and realization of gay or lesbian thoughts and feelings) develops.

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Identity Comparison

In this stage the person begins to accept the possibility of having a predominantly gay or lesbian orientation, and moves from confusion and incongruence toward addressing the social alienation resulting from a commitment to being gay or lesbian

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Identity Tolerance

In this stage the person begins to admit to him or herself that he or she is probably gay or lesbian. This helps the person decrease identity confusion and allows him or her to pursue more of his or her own emotional, social, and sexual needs.

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Identity Tolerance

The person seeks out contacts and friends in the gay or lesbian community and has a chance to see positive role models. If the contacts are positive, he or she will probably become more accepting of a gay or lesbian sexual identity.

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Identity Acceptance

In this stage the individual increases contact with other gay and lesbian people and accepts a gay or lesbian identity. Incongruity and alienation often continue because of the lack of acceptance by the heterosexual community.

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Identity Acceptance

The person may be able to fit in with both the gay or lesbian and straight world. For some individuals this strategy works and they successfully live their lives at this stage.

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Identity Pride

People at this stage reject strategies to hide their sexual orientation and often reject heterosexual values and institutions. Personal reactions by heterosexual friends and others in this stage can be both positive and negative. If reactions are generally negative, then the person tends to stay in this stage.

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Identity Synthesis

In this stage the “us” and “them” mentality gives way to a more differentiated view. Feelings of pride continue, but the person comes to recognize that the dichotomy between the gay and straight world is not as clear cut as he or she previously perceived.

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Identity Synthesis

Personal and public views of self are synthesized and a person’s sexual identity becomes less important as sexual identity is integrated into all other aspects of self.

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Religious Identity Development

Stage 1: Pre-encounter -In this stage the person has virtually no awareness of their own religious identity Stage 2: Encounter -In this stage a person probably has some personal encounter with religious prejudice as well as some sort of trigger that indicates the beginning of separation from the majority religion.

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Religious Identity Development

Stage 3: Immersion/Emersion -In this stage a person has a desire to surround themselves with some or all forms of religious culture. The subject is energized by new information and newly developing beliefs in their hearts.

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Religious Identity Development

Stage 4: Internalization -In this stage the subject turns his or her emotions and dedication inward. The subject will ask themselves many questions such as, "What does it mean for me to be a_________?"

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Religious Identity Development

Stage 5: Internalization/Commitment – The subject finds ways to interpret his or her own spirituality and personality in the context of their entire being. The focus is less on the inward person and more on the outward whole of humanity. This stage is somewhat of a thoughtful religious maturity.

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STIGMATIZATION/ MARGINALIZATION

Poor children are at increased risk of receiving disparaging self-relevant information from the social environment, with poverty being viewed by many as the product of individual shortcomings and moral deficiencies rather than societal factors

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LIMITATIONS IN OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE

The nature of the opportunities available to individuals is another factor that must be taken into account when examining potential effects of poverty on development. The notion of a level playing field may be largely mythical, unsubstantiated by the reality of the relationship between socioeconomic background and opportunity structure.

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STRESS

Poverty involves exposure to multiple stressors that can have an undesirable influence on development Economic deprivation entails stressful life events and chronic strains Compared to their non-poor counterparts, poor children encounter more family turmoil, violence, instability/unpredictability in routines of daily living

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All the world is a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and entrances; Each person in time plays many parts. – William Shakespeare
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Adolescence

References
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Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1979 Atkinson & Sue, 19 93 Bronfenbr enner, 1 979, 1993 Cross, 1987, 1995 Helms, 1990, 1995 Kilson, 2001 Phillips,200 7 Phinney, 199 0 Poston, 1990 Renn, 2000 Root,1996 Wallace, 200 1

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