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MATH PROJECT WORK

NAME - SHUBHANSHU BHARGAVA


CLASS -10
SECTION - A
SHIFT- I SHIFT

POLYNOMIALS
POLYNOMIAL A polynomial in one
variable X is an algebraic expression in
X of the form
NOT A POLYNOMIAL The
expression like 1x 1,x+2 etc are not
polynomials .

DEGREE OF POLYNOMIAL
Degree of polynomial- The highest
power of x in p(x) is called the degree of
the polynomial p(x).
EXAMPLE
1) F(x) = 3x + is a polynomial in the
variable x of degree 1.
2) g(y) = 2y y +7 is a polynomial in
the variable y of degree 2 .

TYPES OF POLYNOMIALS
Types of polynomials are
1] Constant polynomial
2] Linear polynomial
3] Quadratic polynomial
4] Cubic polynomial
5] Bi-quadratic polynomial

CONSTANT POLYNOMIAL
CONSTANT POLYNOMIAL A
polynomial of degree zero is called a
constant polynomial.
EXAMPLE - F(x) = 7 etc .
It is also called zero polynomial.
The degree of the zero polynomial is not
defined .

LINEAR POLYNOMIAL
LINEAR
POLYNOMIAL

A
polynomial of degree 1 is called a linear
polynomial .
EXAMPLE- 2x3 , 3x +5 etc .
The most general form of a linear
polynomial is ax b , a 0 ,a & b are
real.

QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL
QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL A
polynomial of degree 2 is called quadratic
polynomial .
EXAMPLE 2x 3x , y 2 etc .
More generally , any quadratic polynomial
in x with real coefficient is of the form ax +
bx + c , where a, b ,c, are real numbers
and a 0

CUBIC POLYNOMIALS
CUBIC POLYNOMIAL A
polynomial of degree 3 is called a cubic
polynomial .
EXAMPLE = 2 x , x, etc .
The most general form of a cubic
polynomial with coefficients as real
numbers is ax bx cx d , a ,b ,c ,d
are reals .

BI QUADRATIC POLYNMIAL
BI QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL
A fourth degree polynomial is called a
biquadratic polynomial .

VALUE OF POLYNOMIAL
If p(x) is a polynomial in x, and if k is any real
constant, then the real number obtained by
replacing x by k in p(x), is called the value of
p(x) at k, and is denoted by p(k) . For
example , consider the polynomial p(x) = x
3x 4 . Then, putting x= 2 in the polynomial ,
we get p(2) = 2 3 2 4 = 4 . The value
6 obtained by replacing x by 2 in x 3x 4
at x = 2 . Similarly , p(0) is the value of p(x) at
x = 0 , which is 4 .

ZERO OF A POLYNOMIAL
A real number k is said to a zero of a
polynomial p(x), if said to be a zero of a
polynomial p(x), if p(k) = 0 . For example,
consider the polynomial p(x) = x 3x 4 .
Then,

p(1) = (1) (3(1) 4 = 0


Also, p(4) = (4) (3 4) 4 = 0
Here, 1 and 4 are called the zeroes of the
quadratic polynomial x 3x 4 .

HOW TO FIND THE ZERO OF


A LINEAR POLYNOMIAL
In general, if k is a zero of p(x) = ax b,
then p(k) = ak b = 0, k = b a . So,
the zero of a linear polynomial ax b is
b a = ( constant term )
coefficient of x . Thus, the zero of a
linear polynomial is related to its
coefficients .

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF
THE ZEROES OF A POLYNOMIAL
We know that a real number k is a zero
of the polynomial p(x) if p(K) = 0 . But to
understand the importance of finding
the zeroes of a polynomial, first we shall
see the geometrical meaning of
1) Linear polynomial .
2) Quadratic polynomial
3) Cubic polynomial

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF
LINEAR POLYNOMIAL
For a linear polynomial ax b , a 0,
the graph of y = ax b is a straight line .
Which intersect the x axis and which
intersect the x axis exactly one point (
b 2 , 0 ) . Therefore the linear
polynomial ax b , a 0 has exactly
one zero .

QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL
For any quadratic polynomial ax bx c,
a 0, the graph of the corresponding
equation y = ax bx c has one of the
two shapes either open upwards or open
downward depending on whether a0 or
a0 .these curves are called parabolas .

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF
CUBIC POLYNOMIAL
The zeroes of a cubic polynomial p(x) are
the x coordinates of the points where the
graph of y = p(x) intersect the x axis .
Also , there are at most 3 zeroes for the
cubic polynomials . In fact, any polynomial
of degree 3 can have at most three
zeroes .

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
ZEROES OF A POLYNOMIAL

For a quadratic polynomial In general, if and


are the zeroes of a quadratic polynomial p(x) = ax bx
c , a 0 , then we know that x and x are the factors
of p(x) . Therefore ,
ax bx c = k ( x ) ( x ) ,
Where k is a constant = k[x ( )x ]
= kx k( ) x k
Comparing the coefficients of x , x and constant term on
both the sides .
Therefore , sum of zeroes = b a
= (coefficients of x) coefficient of x
Product of zeroes = c a = constant term coefficient of x

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZERO


AND COEFFICIENT OF A CUBIC
POLYNOMIAL
In general, if , , Y are the zeroes of a
cubic polynomial ax bx cx d , then
Y = ba
= ( Coefficient of x ) coefficient of x
Y Y =c a
= coefficient of x coefficient of x
Y = d a
= constant term coefficient of x

DIVISION ALGORITHEM FOR


POLYNOMIALS
If p(x) and g(x) are any two polynomials
with g(x) 0, then we can find polynomials
q(x) and r(x) such that
p(x) = q(x) g(x) r(x)
Where r(x) = 0 or degree of r(x) degree
of g(x) .
This result is taken as division algorithm
for polynomials .

THE

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