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CLASS -10

SECTION - A

SHIFT- I SHIFT

POLYNOMIALS

POLYNOMIAL A polynomial in one

variable X is an algebraic expression in

X of the form

NOT A POLYNOMIAL The

expression like 1x 1,x+2 etc are not

polynomials .

DEGREE OF POLYNOMIAL

Degree of polynomial- The highest

power of x in p(x) is called the degree of

the polynomial p(x).

EXAMPLE

1) F(x) = 3x + is a polynomial in the

variable x of degree 1.

2) g(y) = 2y y +7 is a polynomial in

the variable y of degree 2 .

TYPES OF POLYNOMIALS

Types of polynomials are

1] Constant polynomial

2] Linear polynomial

3] Quadratic polynomial

4] Cubic polynomial

5] Bi-quadratic polynomial

CONSTANT POLYNOMIAL

CONSTANT POLYNOMIAL A

polynomial of degree zero is called a

constant polynomial.

EXAMPLE - F(x) = 7 etc .

It is also called zero polynomial.

The degree of the zero polynomial is not

defined .

LINEAR POLYNOMIAL

LINEAR

POLYNOMIAL

A

polynomial of degree 1 is called a linear

polynomial .

EXAMPLE- 2x3 , 3x +5 etc .

The most general form of a linear

polynomial is ax b , a 0 ,a & b are

real.

QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL

QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL A

polynomial of degree 2 is called quadratic

polynomial .

EXAMPLE 2x 3x , y 2 etc .

More generally , any quadratic polynomial

in x with real coefficient is of the form ax +

bx + c , where a, b ,c, are real numbers

and a 0

CUBIC POLYNOMIALS

CUBIC POLYNOMIAL A

polynomial of degree 3 is called a cubic

polynomial .

EXAMPLE = 2 x , x, etc .

The most general form of a cubic

polynomial with coefficients as real

numbers is ax bx cx d , a ,b ,c ,d

are reals .

BI QUADRATIC POLYNMIAL

BI QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL

A fourth degree polynomial is called a

biquadratic polynomial .

VALUE OF POLYNOMIAL

If p(x) is a polynomial in x, and if k is any real

constant, then the real number obtained by

replacing x by k in p(x), is called the value of

p(x) at k, and is denoted by p(k) . For

example , consider the polynomial p(x) = x

3x 4 . Then, putting x= 2 in the polynomial ,

we get p(2) = 2 3 2 4 = 4 . The value

6 obtained by replacing x by 2 in x 3x 4

at x = 2 . Similarly , p(0) is the value of p(x) at

x = 0 , which is 4 .

ZERO OF A POLYNOMIAL

A real number k is said to a zero of a

polynomial p(x), if said to be a zero of a

polynomial p(x), if p(k) = 0 . For example,

consider the polynomial p(x) = x 3x 4 .

Then,

Also, p(4) = (4) (3 4) 4 = 0

Here, 1 and 4 are called the zeroes of the

quadratic polynomial x 3x 4 .

A LINEAR POLYNOMIAL

In general, if k is a zero of p(x) = ax b,

then p(k) = ak b = 0, k = b a . So,

the zero of a linear polynomial ax b is

b a = ( constant term )

coefficient of x . Thus, the zero of a

linear polynomial is related to its

coefficients .

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF

THE ZEROES OF A POLYNOMIAL

We know that a real number k is a zero

of the polynomial p(x) if p(K) = 0 . But to

understand the importance of finding

the zeroes of a polynomial, first we shall

see the geometrical meaning of

1) Linear polynomial .

2) Quadratic polynomial

3) Cubic polynomial

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF

LINEAR POLYNOMIAL

For a linear polynomial ax b , a 0,

the graph of y = ax b is a straight line .

Which intersect the x axis and which

intersect the x axis exactly one point (

b 2 , 0 ) . Therefore the linear

polynomial ax b , a 0 has exactly

one zero .

QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL

For any quadratic polynomial ax bx c,

a 0, the graph of the corresponding

equation y = ax bx c has one of the

two shapes either open upwards or open

downward depending on whether a0 or

a0 .these curves are called parabolas .

GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF

CUBIC POLYNOMIAL

The zeroes of a cubic polynomial p(x) are

the x coordinates of the points where the

graph of y = p(x) intersect the x axis .

Also , there are at most 3 zeroes for the

cubic polynomials . In fact, any polynomial

of degree 3 can have at most three

zeroes .

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

ZEROES OF A POLYNOMIAL

are the zeroes of a quadratic polynomial p(x) = ax bx

c , a 0 , then we know that x and x are the factors

of p(x) . Therefore ,

ax bx c = k ( x ) ( x ) ,

Where k is a constant = k[x ( )x ]

= kx k( ) x k

Comparing the coefficients of x , x and constant term on

both the sides .

Therefore , sum of zeroes = b a

= (coefficients of x) coefficient of x

Product of zeroes = c a = constant term coefficient of x

AND COEFFICIENT OF A CUBIC

POLYNOMIAL

In general, if , , Y are the zeroes of a

cubic polynomial ax bx cx d , then

Y = ba

= ( Coefficient of x ) coefficient of x

Y Y =c a

= coefficient of x coefficient of x

Y = d a

= constant term coefficient of x

POLYNOMIALS

If p(x) and g(x) are any two polynomials

with g(x) 0, then we can find polynomials

q(x) and r(x) such that

p(x) = q(x) g(x) r(x)

Where r(x) = 0 or degree of r(x) degree

of g(x) .

This result is taken as division algorithm

for polynomials .

THE

END

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