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# Fundamentals of process

Process Dynamics

Flow in

from an upstream
process, and may
change with time

Flow out

## The level in the tank

must be kept
constant in spite of
these changes

## If the outlet flow is simply set equal to the

inlet flow, the tank may overflow or run
empty (because of flow measurement
errors)

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Flow in

## The level controller (LC)

looks at the level
(monitoring)

SP
LT

LC

Flow out

## If the level starts to

increase, the LC sends
a signal to the output
valve to vary the output
flow (change)

## This is the essence of feedback control

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## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Feedback control
It is the most important and widely used
control strategy
It is a closed-loop control strategy
Block diagram
disturbance

ysp

manipulated

comparator

set-point

error

controller

variable

process

y
controlled
variable

transmitter
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Flow in

disturbance

transmitter

desired value
(set-point)

SP
LT

LC

controller
controlled
variable
(measurement)

process

Flow out
manipulated
variable

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## More on control jargon

Input variables : independently stimulate the
system; they can induce change in the internal
conditions of the process

## Output variables : measurements y, by which one

obtains information about the internal state of the
system (e.g. temperature, level, viscosity, refractive index)
States : minimum set x of variables essentials for
completely describing the internal condition of a
process (e.g. composition, holdup, enthalpy)
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Process dynamics
Given a dynamic model of the process, it
investigates the process response to various
input changes
Two elements are necessary:

## a dynamic model of the process

a known forcing function

u (t )

Step input

u (t )

Pulse input

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time

time

## Process models: Which?

We will consider only two classes of dynamic
process models

state-space models

input-output models

## State-space models can be derived directly from the

general conservation equation:
Accumulation = (Inlet Outlet) +
(Generation Consumption)

## They are written in terms of differential equations

relating process states to time They occur in the
time domain
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(contd)

## Input-output models completely disregard the

process states. They only give a relationship between
process inputs and process outputs They occur in
the Laplace domain

State-space model

d x(t )
f (x; u; d ; t )
dt
states
y h( x)
output

Input-output model

Y ( s ) G ( s )U ( s )
U (s )

G (s )

Y (s )

## G (s) is called transfer

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function of the process
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Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Linear systems
In the time domain, a linear system is
modeled by a linear differential equation.
For example, a linear, nth-order system is:
n

an

d y
dt

an 1

n 1

dt

n 1

dy
a1
a0 y b u (t )
dt

Our assumptions:
the coefficients of the
differential equations
are constant
the output y is equal
to the state x

Note
The Laplace-domain representation is possible only for
linear (or linearized) systems
We will assume that the process behavior in the
vicinity of the steady state is linear
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First-order systems
Time-domain model

Laplace-domain
model

( Dividing by a0 )

dy
P
y K P u (t )
dt

Y ( s )

KP
U ( s )
P s 1

## (it is always >0)

KP
Transfer function of a first-order system:G ( s )
P s 1
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input,u output,y

## We only consider the response to a step

forcing function of amplitude A

A
K
P
0
.
6
3
2
A
K
P

P
0
A

The time-domain
response is:

y (t ) AK P 1 e

t
P

It takes 45 time
constants for the
process to reach
state

tim
e

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## Determining the process gain

An open-loop test can be performed starting

## record the time profile of the measured output

until a new steady state is approached

## check if this profile resembles

y (t ) AK P (1 e t / P )
if so, calculate KP as:

KP

y ss,new yss,ref
unew uref

(output )

(input )

The gain is a
dimensional
figure

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## Determining the time constant

From the same open-loop test:
determine graphically (note: it has the dimension of time)
P

output, y

AKP
0.632 AKP

## You need dynamic

information to
determine the
process time
constant
Determining the
values of KP and P
from process data is
known as process
identification

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time

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

An alternative approach
State the identification task as an optimization
problem:
given a first-order model, find the K and values that allow
P
P
the model to best-fit the experimental data

## You will need a computer package to perform the

fitting (e.g. Control StationTM, MatlabTM)
It is better to step up and down the manipulated
input several times to capture the true dynamic
behavior of the process
Never trust on the raw fitting results only! Always
judge the results by superimposing the fitted curve to
the process one
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An alternative approach

(contd)

## Fitting a first-order model to plant data

Process: white line

55

50

45
55

50

45
0

500

1000
Time

## Gain (K) = 1.51, Time Constant (T1) = 169.6

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1500

results

of fttin
g

Bangkok,SSE:
8-12

## Extension to nonlinear systems

Strictly speaking, the gain and time constant
are independent of the operating steady state
for linear systems only
If a true (i.e. nonlinear) system is being
considered, the excitation sequence must be
such that the process is not moved too far
away from the nominal steady state
linear

y
K P ,linear

nonlinear

y
K P ,nonlinear
u

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## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Further remarks
Slow and fast
processes
1.0

y/(KPA)

0.8

50

100

0.6
0.4

0.2

10

0.0
0

50

100
150
200
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time units
Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

The time
needed to
approach the
state increases
with increasing

P
Note
For all Ps, the

output starts to
change
immediately after
the input has been
Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002
changed

## Pure time-delay systems

Many real systems do not

Plug flow
Incompressible
fluid

react immediately to
excitation (as first order
The time needed to
transport a fluid property
change from the inlet to
the outlet is:

L
P
v

or time delay

## Examples: transportation lags (e.g. due to pipe length, to

recycle, ); measurement lags (e.g. gaschromatographs)

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(contd)

## The process output is simply

shifted by P units in time
with respect to the input

y (t )
Recorded output

P
time

u (t )
Applied input

0
0

time

Models
Time domain :

t P
0 ,
y (t )
x(t P ) , t P
Laplace domain :

Y ( s)
e P s
U (s)

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FOPDT systems

input

output

frie
rondse
re

The dynamic
behavior of
many real
systems can
be
approximated
as First Order
Time (FOPDT)

tim
e

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## Modeling a FOPDT system

The behavior of a pure time-delay system is simply
superimposed to that of a first-order system

d y (t )
P
y (t ) K P u (t P )
dt
P s

KP e
G (s)
P s 1

Time domain

Laplace domain

## Approximating a real system as a FOPDT linear

system is extremely important for controller design
and tuning
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Second-order systems
Time-domain

2
d
y
dy
representation:
a2 2 a1
a0 y bu (t )
dt
dt

2
d
y
dy
2

2
y Ku(t )
2
dt
dt

Laplace-domain representation:

Y (s)
K
2 2
U ( s ) s 2s 1
Y (s)
K

U ( s ) (1s 1)( 2 s 1)

K = process gain

= natural period
= damping

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coefficient

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

.1
1
8

=
0
.
2
.1
6
.1
4
0
.
4
.1
2
6
.0
0
.0
8
.0
6
.0
4
.0.2
02468t1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
/

y/(K
A
)

Underdamped systems

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Open-loop
response to
a input step
disturbance

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

.1
1
8
.1
6
.1
4
.1
2
1
.
0
.0
0
5
.0
8
2
.
0

=
3
.
0
.0
6
.0
4
.0.2
02468t1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
/

y/(K
A
)

Overdamped systems

Open-loop
response to
a input step
disturbance

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## Effect of the damping coefficient

The value of completely determines the degree of
oscillation in a process response after a perturbation
>1:

## 0 < < 1 : underdamped, oscillating response

(the damping is attenuated as decreases)

<0:

unstable system
(the oscillation amplitude grows indefinitely)

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## The importance of 2nd-order

systems
Control systems are often designed so that the
controlled (i.e., closed-loop) process responds as an
underdamped second-order system

a
c
t
u
a
l
t
r
a
j
e
c
t
o
r
y
.1.4
1
2

co
n
tro
ledvariab
le

.0.0
1
8
.0.6
0
4
d
e
s
i
r
e
d
v
a
l
u
e
.0.2
0
0051015202530
tim
eu
n
its

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in
p
u
tan
d
o
u
tp
u
t

Inverse-response systems

outputvariable input
variable

There is an
initial inversion
in the response:
the process starts
moving away
from its ultimate
value

tim
e

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The process
output
eventually
direction of the

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Inverse-response systems
(contd)

## Inverse response is the net result of two

i) opposing dynamic modes of ii) different
magnitudes, operating on iii) different
time scales

## the faster mode has a small magnitude and is

responsible for the initial, wrong way response

## the slower mode has a larger magnitude and is

responsible for the long-term, dominant response

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## Example process: drum boiler

Steam

Disturbance :
step increase in the
cold feedwater
flowrate

Cold feedwater
Hot medium

Output :
level in the boiler

## In the long run, the level is expected to increase, because we

have increased the feed material without changing the heat supply
But immediately after the cold water has been increased, a drop
in the drum liquid temperature is observed, which causes the
bubbles to collapse and the observed level to reduce
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Fundamentals of process
dynamics and control

Process Control

Feedback control
The process information (y) is fed back to the
controller
The objective is to reduce the error signal to
zero, where the error is defined as:

e(t ) y sp (t ) y (t )

## ysp = set point (target value)

y = measured value
disturbance

ysp

manipulated

comparator

set-point

variable

error

process

controller

controlled
variable

transmitter
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## The typical control problems

Regulatory control

## the task is to counteract the effect of external

disturbances in order to maintain the output at
its constant set-point (disturbance rejection)
Servo control

## the objective is to cause the output to track the

changing set-point

## In both cases, one or more variables are

manipulated by the control system
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## Material balance control # 1

Liquid holdup control
(level control)
Flow in

## If the level h tends to

increase, the error
(hsp h) decreases

SP
LT

LC

Flow out

valve actuator

increased

decreases

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## Material balance control # 1

(contd)
The controllers job is to enforce the total mass
balance around the tank, in order to have neither
accumulation nor depletion of liquid matter inside the
tank
rate of mass out
set by the controller

rate of mass in

## The equality is enforced by the controller

regardless of the value of the level set-point

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system
once more...

## Monitoring certain variables that indicate process

conditions at any time (measurements)

## Making rational decisions regarding what

corrective action is needed (current state vs.
desired state)

## Inducing changes in the appropriate process

variables to improve process conditions (valves to
manipulate)

## According to what rationale does a

feedback control system work?
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## On-off control: the simplest one

The control variable is manipulated according to:

u max , if e 0
u (t )
u min , if e 0

output

## The final control element is either

completely open/maximum, or
completely closed/minimum

band

ON
input
OFF

time

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Widely used as
thermostat in
domestic heating
systems,
refrigerators, ;
also in noncritical
industrial applicns
(some level and
heating loops)

inexpensive

Pitfalls

## not effective for good set-point control (the

controlled variable cycles)

## produce wear on the final control element (it can

be attenuated by a large dead band, at the expense of a
loss of performance)

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## Proportional (P) controllers

The control variable is manipulated according to:

u (t ) u0 K C e(t )

## u0 is the controller bias

KC is the controller gain

## The controller gain can be adjusted (tuned) to

make the manipulated variable changes as
sensitive as desired to the deviations between setpoint and controlled variable

## The sign of KC can be chosen to make the

controller output u increase or decrease as the
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error
increases
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Sustainable Industrial
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P-only controllers
u (t ) u0 K C e(t )
The bias u0 is the value of the controller output
which, in manual mode, causes the measured
process variable to maintain steady state at the
design level of operation
[e (t )=0] when the process disturbances are at
their expected values
The bias value is assigned at the controller design
level, and remains fixed once the controller is put
in automatic
u u const : at the nominal steady state
0

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P-only controllers
Flow in

u (t ) u0 K C e(t )

70 L/h

Nominal operation:
u must be 60 L/h if

SP
LT

LC

Flow out

disturbance

60 L/h

10 L/h
Flow in

SP
LT

## e = 0 then u0=60 L/h

If the disturbance
changes to 20 L/h,
maintained only if
u=50 L/h since

70 L/h

disturbance

(contd)

LC

Flow out

50 L/h

must be 0

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20 L/h
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P-only controllers

(contd)

u (t ) u0 K C e(t )
What if the disturbance changes during the process?
The manipulated input u must change to guarantee
that the process stays at steady state,
u u0i.e.
A steady state error e 0 must be enforced by the Ponly controller to keep the process at steady state:
u s.s. u0 K C e(t ) u0

## A P-only controller cannot remove off-set

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## Performance of P-only controllers

Response to a disturbance step change
no control
(KC=0)
Whatever the value of
KC, the offset is
reduced with respect
to open-loop
operation

controlled variable

increasing KC

Increasing KC :
off-set

set-point

time

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## the offset is reduced

the system may
oscillate
the process response
is speeded up

## loop response may be

1st order, the
closedBangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

## Summary for P-only control

conceptually simple

## easy to tune (a single parameter is needed, KC ;

the bias is determined from steady state
information)

Pitfalls

controlled)

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PI controllers
P=Proportional , I=Integral
The P controller cannot remove off-set because the
only way to change the controller bias during nonnominal operations is to cause e 0
The rationale behind a PI controller is to set the
actual bias different from u0 , thus letting the
error be zero
The control variable is manipulated according to:

1
u (t ) u0 K C e(t ) e(t ) d t
I 0

## u0 is the controller bias

KC is the controller gain

## I is the integral time

(also called reset time)

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PI controllers

(contd)

1
u (t ) u0 K C e(t ) e(t ) d t
I 0

## Note that until e 0, the manipulated input keeps on

changing because of the presence of the integral
term
The change in u (t ) will stop only when e = 0

## The integral action can eliminate off-set

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Performance of PI controllers
Response to a disturbance step change: effect of KC
open-loop
(KC=0)

The offset is
eliminated

controlled variable

Increasing KC :

fixed

increasing KC

set point

time

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## the process response

is speeded up
the system may
oscillateCAUTION

For large
values of
the
controller
gain, the
closed-loop
response
mayBangkok,
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Performance of PI controllers
(contd)

## Response to a disturbance step change: effect of I

controlled variable

Increasing

I :

oscillations are
dampened
the process response

KC fixed
increasing I

CAUTION

set point

time

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For small
values of
the integral
time, the
closed-loop
response
may be
unstable
!
Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

## the process response can be considerably

speeded up with respect to open-loop

Pitfalls

## tuning is harder (two parameters must be

specified, KC and I)

## the process response becomes oscillatory; bad

tuning may even lead to instability

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PID controllers
P=Proportional , I=Integral , D=Derivative
i) If the error if increasing very rapidly, a large
deviation from the setpoint may arise in a short
time
ii) Sluggish processes tend to cycle
The rationale behind derivative action is to
anticipate the future behavior of the error signal by
considering its rate of change
The control variable is manipulated according to:

1
d e(t )

u (t ) u0 K C e(t ) e(t ) d t D

d
t
I 0

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## Performance of PID controllers

Response to a disturbance step change
Increasing

controlled variable

no derivative action
D = 0

D :

## the oscillations caused

by the integral
action are
dampened
the process response
is speeded up

increasing D

CAUTION

set-point

time

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Noisy
measurement
s may disrupt
the controller
performance
!

## Beware measurement noise !

The derivative action requires derivation of the
output measurement y with respect to time:
d e d( y sp y )

If the measured
dt
dt
controlled variable

+100%

time
manipulated variable

+50%
0
-50%
-100%

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time

## output is noisy, its

time derivative
may be large, and
this causes the
manipulated
variable to be
subject to abrupt
changes
Attenuate or
suppress the
derivative action

Pitfalls

## tuning is harder than PI (three parameters must be

specified, KC , I and D)
the derivative action may amplify measurement noise
potential wear on the final control element

## avoid using the D action when the controlled variable has

P / sluggish
a noisy measure or when the process is not
(
P 0 .5
)

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Controller selection
recommendations
When steady state offsets can be tolerated, use a
P-only controller (many liquid level loops are on P control)
When offset cannot be tolerated, use a PI controller
(a large proportion of feedback loops in a typical plant are
under PI control)

## When it is important to compensate for some

natural sluggishness in the system, and the
process signal are relatively noise-free, use a PID
controller

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## normalized controlled variable

Performance assessment
P

tr = rise time

1.4
1.2

## tp = time to first peak

ts = settling time

1.05

1.0

0.95

0.8
0.6
0.4

a /b = overshoot
b

A good
decay ratio
is 1/4
(quarter
amplitude
decay)

c /a = decay ratio
P = period of oscillation

0.2
0.0

0 tr tp 5

10 ts 15
20
25
30
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timeAnalysis,
units

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Performance indexes
IAE

## e(t ) d:t integral of the absolute value of error

0

controlled variable

## The controllers tuning

parameters (KC ; I ; possibly
D) are chosen such that IAE
is minimized
set-point

## Semi-empirical formulae can

be derived based on a FOPDT
open-loop identification

time

## The optimal controllers

rejection are different from
those for set-point tracking

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Tuning guidelines
Fit a FOPDT model to the process data obtained by
step (or pulse) changes in the manipulated
variable

## the sampling rate should be at least ten times faster than

the process time constant

## the measured variable should be forced to move at least

ten times from the noise band

## Determine initial values for KC , I (and possibly D )

from suggested correlations
Never ever trust blindly on these settings. Always
refine the tuning on-field
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## Tuning correlations for PI control

(based on FOPDT open-loop identification)
KC
P
K P ( P P )

## minimum I TAE for

set point tracking

0.586
P / P 0.916
KP

P
0.929
1.03 0.165 P / P

## minimum I TAE for

disturbance rejection

0.859
P / P 0.977
KP

P
0.680
0.674 P / P

## I MC for balanced set

point tracking and
disturbance rejection

Note
C is the larger
of (0.1P )
and (0.8P )

0

value of error

## Controller tuning can be performed automatically using

the Design Tools module of Control Station

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## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

control
In conventional feedback control the corrective
action for disturbances does not begin until after
the controlled variable deviates from the set point
TC

stack gas

TT

hot oil
fuel gas

cold oil

## If either the cold

oil flow rate or the
cold oil
temperature
change, the
controller may do
a good job in
keeping the hot oil
temperature at
the setpoint

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

TC

master loop

stack gas

set point
PC
TT

slave loop
PT

hot oil
fuel gas

The performance
can be improved
because the fuel
control valve will be
the change in supply
pressure is detected

cold oil

## Two control loops are nested within each

other: the master controller and the slave
controller

## the output signal of the master (primary) controller serves

as the set point of the slave (secondary) controller

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Fe e d in

## The TC may reject

satisfactorily
disturbances such as
reactant feed T and
composition

Cooling
w ater out
Cooling
w ater in

## If the T of the cooling

TC

water increases, it
slowly increases the
reactor T

TT

Products out

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## delayed by dynamic lags

in the jacket and in the
reactor

(contd)

Fe e d in

slave loop

## improved because the

cooling water rate will
be adjusted as soon as a
change in the jacket
temperature is detected

Cooling
w ater out
Cooling
w ater in

TT

## This keeps the heat

TC

set point
TT

TC

master loop

removal rate at a
constant level, and the
reactor temperature is
less affected by the
unknown disturbance

Products out
Training Course on:
Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

1 Begin with both the master and the slave controllers

in manual
2 Tune the slave (inner) loop for set-point tracking first

## (the tuning guidelines presented before can be

used)
3 Close the slave loop, and adjust the tuning on line to

## ensure good performance

4 Leaving the inner loop closed, tune the master loop

## for disturbance rejection (the tuning guidelines

presented before can be used)
5 Close the master loop, and adjust the tuning on line

## to ensure good performance

A P-only controller is often sufficient for the slave loop
Training Course on:
Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

It is used to improve the dynamic response of the
It is particularly useful when the disturbances are
associated with the manipulated variable or when
the final control element exhibits nonlinear behavior
The disturbances to be rejected must be within the
inner loop
The inner loop must respond much more quickly
than the outer loop
Two controllers must be tuned

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Control Station
It is a software for process control, analysis,
tuning and training
Developed by Prof. Doug Cooper at the
Chem. Eng. Dept. (Univ. of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT, U.S.A.)
Information on the software at the following
Internet site:
http://www.engr.uconn.edu/control/

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

## Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Useful references
Seborg, D. E., T. F. Edgar and D. A. Mellichamp (1989).
Process Dynamics and Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York
(U.S.A.)
Ogunnaike, B. A. and W. H. Ray (1994). Process Dynamics,
Modeling and Control, Oxford University Press, New York
(U.S.A.)
Marlin, T. E. (2000). Process Control: Designing Processes and
Control Systems for Dynamic Performance, Mc-Graw-Hill, New
York (U.S.A.)
Riggs, J. B. (1999). Chemical Process Control, Ferret
Publishing, Lubbock (U.S.A.)

## Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control