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CEE 4331: Ecology and Environment

Credit 2.00

Dr.ShahriarShams
RoomNo.107NewAcademicBuilding
email:sshams@iutdhaka.edu
Emailtome
Withsubjectheading:Ecology

Syllabus
Concept, definition, and components of ecology.
Ecosystem: Concept, principles, structure and functioning
of ecosystem; Types of ecosystem: Energy and Materials
flowinecosystem;Foodchain,biodiversityandstabilityin
ecosystems. Biochemical cycles: Carbon cycle, nitrogen
cycle, sulfur cycle and phosphorous cycle. Cycle of trace
elements. Population dynamics and carrying capacity.
Environment: Introduction to environment; components of
the environment; environmental resources; environment
human interaction and environmental degradation;
Environmental pollution; environmental conservation.
Global environmental concerns: Climate change, ozone
layer depletion, global warming and green house effects,
sealevelrise.Elnino.Lanino.

Week
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Topics
Ecology: Concept, definition, and components of ecology. Ecosystem:
Concept, principles, structure and functioning of ecosystem;
Types of ecosystem: Energy and Materials flow in ecosystem; Food chain,
biodiversity and stability in ecosystems
Biochemical cycles: Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle
sulfur cycle and phosphorous cycle
Cycle of trace elements. Population dynamics and carrying capacity.
Environment: Introduction to environment; components of the environment;
environmental resources
environment-human interaction and environmental degradation;
Environmental pollution, environmental conservation
Global environmental concerns: Climate change, ozone layer depletion,
global warming
green house effects, sea level rise. El nino. La nino.

Whatisecology?
OriginatredfromGreek
ecooikos;house
logylogos;thestudyof
Studyofthehouse/environmentin
whichwelive.

Ecology
is
Thestudyofthedistributionand
abundanceoforganisms,
AND
theflowsofenergyandmaterials
throughorganismsandthe
physicalenvironment.

Ecologyisstudyofinteractionsbetween
nonlivingcomponentsintheenvironment

light
water
wind
nutrientsinsoil
heat
solarradiation
atmosphere,etc.

AND

Livingorganisms
Plants
Animals
microorganismsinsoil,etc.

TostudyEcologyinvolves
For non-living
(abiotic)
Climatology
Hydrology
Oceanography
Physics
Chemistry
Geology
soil analysis, etc.

For living
(biotic)

animal
behavior
Physiology
mathematics
(population
studies)
etc.

Ecology
views each locale as an integrated whole
of interdependent parts that function as a
unit.

tundra

caribou

tundraisabiomewherethetreegrowthishinderedbylowtemperaturesand
shortgrowingseasons.

Biomes are defined as "the world's major communities,


classified according to the predominant vegetation and
characterizedbyadaptationsoforganismstothatparticular
environment"
(Campbell
1996).
Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic
conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil
organisms

Herewegroupbiomesintosixmajortypes:

Theinterdependentpartsare

Nonliving
dead organic
matter
nutrients in the
soil and water.
Producers
Tundra

green plants

Consumers
herbivores and
carnivores

Decomposers
fungi and bacteria
Tundra

Caribou

ECOLOGY:
LevelsofOrganization
ahierarchyoforganization
intheenvironment

ScalesofEcologicalOrganization

Biosphere

Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism

LevelsoforganizationTerms
Biosphere
Surfaceoftheearth
Composedofmanyecosystems

Ecosystem
Largeorsmallaswedecide
Backyard,Park,etc.

LevelsoforganizationTerms

Populationonespeciesliveinoneplaceatonetime
CommunityAllpopulations(diff.species)thatlive
inaparticulararea.

LevelsoforganizationTerms

Habitatphysicallocationofcommunity
Organismsimplestleveloforganization

Verycomplex
Cancontain100sto1000sofinteracting
species.

THEN

Ecologyisanintegratedand
dynamicstudyoftheenvironment.

ThefieldofEcologyisderived
from:
1.naturalhistory
2.physiology
3.evolution

Foundersofthetheoryofevolution
Charles
Darwin

1831

AlfredRussell
Wallace

1854

QuestionsthatDarwinandWallacethoughtabout:
whyaresomanyspeciesextinct?
whydoesagivenspeciesoccurinonelocation
andnotanother?
whatarethedifferencesbetween
narrowlyrestrictedandwidelydistributedspecies?
whyaretheremorespeciesinthetropics?

Malthus,1830s

How is the seal adapted to


its environment?
Streamlined
shape.

Forward-facing
eyes for clear
vision ahead.

Strong teeth
to catch fish.

Hind legs have


evolved into a a
strong rudderlike tail.

Flippers to
help it swim.
Thick layer of
body fat to
keep it warm.

Rabbits
12rabbitsbroughttoAustraliain1859
by1886,rabbitsspannedthecountry
numberinginthemillions